Look at the following picture what
type of crime do they represent?
List the main causes of crime during
1500 - 1750
Religious change
Government & laws
Increased travel & roads
Class system
Increased population
• FOOTPADS : Thieves
EXCISE MEN: A government agent who collected taxes
(special type of policeman who was responsible for
catching smugglers)
This was such an important role as there was limited
law enforcement at the time with no established police
What was the Industrial Revolution?
• A period starting in 1750 where Britain and
then other countries in the world started to
modernise. New technology was invented,
new product were being produced in bulk;
industry grew and so did the population,
ending in 1900.
• At the end of the 18th century it was not just
crime that was increasing but also poverty.
• The industrial revolution made many people rich
but for many poor families (both in rural and
urban areas)
• life was the worst it had been for a long time.
• As people moved into the towns and cities, the
crime rate increased rapidly.
• Middle class people became alarmed at the
increase in theft and rioting.
• Public disturbances occurred quite often
Where did the population live?
• 1750
• 1900
• The Countryside; farming
• The city; factories & slums
What affects did the Industrial
Revolution have on people’s lives?
Moved from the countryside to the growing cities
High death rate
Thousands of starving orphans
Slum housing
Poor hygiene and sanitation
Overall country wealth substantially increased
UK become major world superpower ruling ¼ globe
Increased crime rate
Need for an organised police force
London became the world’s largest city
Increased population
What crimes developed during the
Industrial Revolution?
• Theft – pick-pocketing
• Young children committing crimes to survive
because they were orphans
• Violence and disorder because of civil unrest
(people protesting against the government
because they were unhappy)
• Assault – often due to heaving alcohol
• Gang crimes
What do the following words mean?
• groups of people based on their income and culture
(working, middle, upper)
• gangs/groups of people
• population unhappy with their lives and government
• people who rule the country
• speaking/acting out against the government
• overthrowing current government or monarch
Protest, Revolution, government, mobs, civil unrest,
class system
What do the following words mean?
• Protest: speaking/acting out against the government
• Civil Unrest: population unhappy with their lives and
• Revolution: overthrowing current government or
• Government: people who rule the country
• Class system: groups of people based on their
income and culture (working, middle, upper)
• Mobs: gangs/groups of people
Why were there protests during the
industrial Revolution?
• Anger at government because people were
poor, didn’t have the vote, suffered terrible
working conditions, low pay and long hours,
machines were taking people’s jobs, slum
housing and bad living conditions
• Differences between rich and poor
• Revolutions in France and other countries
encouraging people to protest
• The Luddites
• Swing Riots
• Rebecca Riots
The Luddites
• Started in 1812
• New machinery called stocking frames were invented were could
produce textile goods more cheaply than people.
• This meant many people lost their jobs or had their wages cut
• People ganged up to smash the machinery and left threatening
messages behind – signed by ‘GENERAL LUDD’ although it is
believed this character never really existed.
• Attacks spread all through the country – violence took place
between the rioters and the mill owners, one mill was murdered
• Government came down harshly on the Luddites partly because
they feared a revolution like in France
• 1813 – 17 luddites executed
The Swing Riots
• Attacks on farm machinery and buildings by agricultural
workers (farmers) angry at low wages and high food prices
• 1830’s
• Smashed barns and broke threshing machine
• Spread across the south of England
• 1500 incidents recorded; machine-breaking, arson and riot
in 4 months
• Leader Captain Swing – probably fictional
• Treated most harshly of all protest groups;
19 executed, 505 transported, 644 imprisoned, 7 fined and 1
Rebecca Riots
• Protests by farmers and agricultural workers in
Wales against high tolls on the new turnpike
Practice exam question
• C)
Name as many modern crimes as you
• Read the question
• Use it to start of the beginning of your answer
• Briefly outline what the sources are, who,
what, where, why, when – then use the
information to answer the question and
support and develop with your own
New Crimes
• Car Crimes
• Computer Crimes
• Violent Crimes
New Crimes
• • The rise of computer crime
• (computer fraud; stealing from bank accounts;
hacking; viruses; identity theft, etc.)
Car Crimes
• development of the motor car; creation of new
crimes such as:
• car theft,
• drink driving,
• Hit and run
• traffic offences – speeding, jumping lights,
using mobile, seat-belt law,
undercutting/undertaking, parking. No tax,
mot, insurance,
Violent crimes
The trend towards violent crime
IRA bombings;
football hooliganism;
global terrorism;
drugs crime;
gun and knife crime)
• Looking at the following statements decide
which terrorist groups/movements they
• Al Qaeda – (AQ)
• Irish Republican Army (IRA)
• Middle Eastern Troubles (ME)
• Definition of terrorism (DT)
Causes of movement linked back to the desire for Ireland to be a united country, without British rule or
intervention. Began turn of the 20th century, troubles reached their height in the 1960’s & 1970’s.
Terrorism can be defined ideological and violent attacks to inspire terror – by a group or individual.
This area of the world is still very turbulent. Causes because there are major issues between land &
territory, religion and cultural differences.
Responsible for the 9/11 attacks on America & 7/7 bombings , 2004 Madrid (Spain) train bombing., 2005,
Sharm-El-Sheik bombings
The troubles linked to 1972 Munich Olympics terror attacks were Palestinian terrorists took Israel
athletes hostage, after a stand off with the authorities – all hostages killed
This group exist because they believe that Muslim law should control the world, they believe their Holy
book compels them to wage war on western culture and anyone who does not follow their version of
Islam. This are extremists who have a warped view of the Islamic religion, many involved have been
brainwashed by fanatics .
This group have been responsible for many attacks on the UK and in Ireland. Some of the more infamous
attacks include
Manchester Bombs – 1996 – IRA
1974 – attacks on British Pubs
1983 – attack on Harrods
Crime focus: Hooliganism
"Hooliganism" is the term used broadly to describe disorderly, aggressive and often violent
behaviour perpetrated by spectators at sporting events. In the UK, hooliganism is almost
exclusively confined to football
Always existed in the sports history but become a more serious problem since the 1960’s
In the 1980’s was linked to English football supports after numerous incidents particularly
aboard – where there were violent assaults including murders
Not as serious a problem now – some violence between rival clubs/gangs – arranged through
mobiles or social networking sites. The worst cases are usually linked to international games.
Other countries more so than England now have problems with Football Hooliganism
An example: Heysel disaster of 1985, in which a "charge" by Liverpool fans at rival Juventus
supporters caused a wall to collapse, resulting in 39 deaths. English teams were banned from
European club competitions until 1990, and during this time, substantial efforts were made
by the police to bring the problem under control.
Many laws have been passed in an attempt to control the growth of Hooliganism
In April 2000, Christopher Loftus and Kevin Speight, two Leeds United supporters, were
stabbed to death in Istanbul ahead of a UEFA Cup semi-final, in what the coroner's inquest
described as "an organised ambush" by Turkish fans
Hooliganism Questions
• What is Hooliganism?
• What causes it?
• Why is it a crime?
• Give some examples?
• Revise all crimes we have looked at for
knowledge test week
• Use syllabus and checklist to guide you in
what to revise

Look at the following picture what type of crime do they represent?