Essential Question:
Which was the more powerful
force during the Era of Good
Feelings: nationalism or
sectionalism?
The Era of
Good Feelings
(1816-1825)
The Era of Good Feelings
 After the War of 1812, America
experienced an “Era of Good
Feelings” characterized by:
– An extremely popular president
– The emergence of a 2nd
generation of U.S. leaders
– Dominance by the Republicans
– A surge in nationalism that
united the country & improved
U.S. industry & transportation
Monroe as President
He
appointed
Democrats,
Federalists,
James Monroe was elected
Southerners, Northerners to his cabinet;
president
in 1816
& John
1820Qwith
a
including Sec
of State
Adams
clear set of goals:
– To promote national unity
– To promote America’s power in
the world
Republican dominance of the
presidency & Congress helped
push through a series of new laws
The Great Triumvirate
 By 1816, a wave of new leaders
shaped the antebellum era:
 Henry Clay (Republican, KY) :
– Represented the “West”
– Speaker of the House
– Proponent of national
economic development
(“American System"
to promote industry
& markets for farmers)
The Great Triumvirate
 By 1816, a new wave of leaders
shaped the antebellum era:
 John C. Calhoun (Republican, SC):
– Represented the “South”
– Sec of War; VP
– He was the nation's
leading proponent
of states' rights (he
embraced nullification)
The Great Triumvirate
 By 1816, a new wave of leaders
While
theythe
did antebellum
not always agree,
this
shaped
era:
“Great Triumvirate” of Clay, Calhoun, &
 Daniel Webster (Whig, MA):
Webster enthusiastically supported national
– Represented
“North”
economic the
development
– Congressman; Sec
of State
– Strong proponent of
nationalism & strong
critic of states' rights
Who
else are
you the
going
to vote
for?
Politics
After
War
of 1812
The Dem-Repubs traditionally
represented limited gov’t, states'
rights, & strict construction
But, without Federalist opposition,
the Dem-Repubs adopted many
traditionally Federalist policies:
– National economic development
– A permanent army
– Transportation improvements
– A national university in D.C.
All were proposed
bylet
Hamilton
& of
1st significant
Jefferson
the
charter
Henry
Clay’s
American
System
opposed
the 1790s
protective
tariffby Republicans
the 1st BUS in
expire
in 1811
in U.S.
history
Henry
Clay’s American System in
1816 proposed the creation of:
– The 2nd Bank of the U.S. to
stabilize U.S. currency
Helped pave the way for future RR
– Tariff of&1816
to promote
U.S.
construction
western
Indian removal
industry & limit the importation
of British manufactured goods
– A nat’l system of roads & canals
The “American System” helped
unify North, South, & West
Judicial Nationalism
John Marshall (1801-1835) used
the Supreme Court to strengthen
the power of the national gov’t:
– Exerted the power of the
national gov’t over the states
– Rejected the claim that states
could check powers of the
national gov’ t
– Affirmed the loose construction
argument of the elastic clause
Judicial Nationalism
Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819):
gov’t cannot interfere with
contracts between private parties
McCullough v. Maryland (1819):
Congress possesses powers not
explicitly stated in Constitution;
Congressional laws are supreme
to decisions made by the states
Gibbons v. Odgen (1824):
interstate commerce is power
reserved for national gov’t
President
Monroe &Foreign
Sec of State
JQ Adams
Nationalist
Policy
developed a nationalist foreign policy agenda
The Convention of 1818 set the
US/Canada Treaty
border (1817):
set at theto49º
Rush-Bagot
avoid conflicts
along the Great Lakes, the U.S. agreed not to
take Canada & Britain not to invade the U.S
Nationalist Foreign Policy
Monroe & JQ Adams turned their
attention to
acquiring
Florida:
Also,
Spain assumed
Florida
eventually
annexed
– Andrewwould
Jackson
took be
it upon
himself
to end
Indian
on
U.S. agreed
to pay
Spainattacks
$5 million
& renounced
claims toFlorida
Texas
Georgia
from Spanish
– Jackson’s military advances &
U.S. success in the War of 1812
helped force the Adams-Onis
Treaty (1819) that ceded Florida
& Oregon to U.S.
Adams-Onis Treaty (1819)
Nationalist Foreign Policy
The U.S. will protect Latin
When independence
Latin American nations
American
revolted
against
Spain,
the U.S.
The U.S.
will act
independently
&
supported
the its
new
republics:
will protect
sphere
of influence
– European powers disliked these
liberal rebellions & were tempted
to re-conquer them
– Monroe Doctrine (1823) warned
European nations to stay out of
the Western Hemisphere & the
U.S. will not interfere in Europe
Sectionalism in the
Era of Good Feelings
The
end of the War
settled in the West
Settlement
of theMany
Trans-Mississippi
of 1812 unleashed
to escape
a rush of pioneers
overpopulation, rising
into the western
land prices, & worn-out
territories
soil in the East
The 2nd BUS made credit
available for farmers to
purchase land
Settlement
theU.S.
Trans-Mississippi
By
1810, 1/7th of the
population lived in
rd lived in the West
the
West;
By
1840
over
1/3
Congress quickly admitted
5 states to the Union:
Indiana (1816)
Illinois (1818)
Alabama (1819)
Mississippi (1817)
Louisiana (1812)
Sectional Disputes
The Era of Good Feelings started
with a wave of national unity, but
sectional disputes between the
North & South emerged & would
dominate politics for next 40 years
– Disagreed over the use of
protective tariffs, especially
when cotton prices fell in 1820s
– Disagreed over slavery in the
western territories & states
Population
was growing
more rapidly in
Missouri
Compromise
North, so House of Reps favored Northerners
In 1817, Missouri applied for
statehood as a slave state &
NY rep Tallmadge
wantedrivalries:
Missouri
revealed
U.S. sectional
only if its state constitution provided for
– North
resented
Southern
control
the gradual
elimination
of slavery
of presidency & its 3/5-inflated
representation in House of Reps
– South feared a Northern
conspiracy to end all slavery
– Equality had been maintained by
alternating admission of “free” &
“slave” states added to the US
American Slave Population, 1790-1820
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Missouri Compromise (1820):
– Missouri became a slave state
– Maine (which broke from Mass)
was admitted as free state
– Slavery was banned elsewhere
in the Louisiana Purchase above
the latitude of 36°30'
The Missouri controversy exposed
a deep rift between North & South
Missouri Compromise, 1820-1821
Conclusions
The “Era of Good Feelings” led to:
– An improved American economy
– Better transportation
– More territory & more clearly-
defined borders
– A foreign policy in Latin America
– But…sectional problems
between the North & South
Discussion Questions
Both Alexander Hamilton &
John Marshall were Federalists
who believed in a strong national
gov’t. Who was more influential in
shaping American history? Explain
Which policy will be more
important in U.S. history: Monroe’s
foreign OR domestic policy?
Essential Question:
–How did U.S. foreign policy
change from the presidencies
of Washington to Monroe?
RQ Ch 10B (328-340)
American Foreign
Policy Activity
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The Era of Good Feelings