CHAPTER FOCUS
SECTION 1 The Government
SECTION 2 Roman Expansion
SECTION 3 The Punic Wars
SECTION 4 Effects of Conquest
SECTION 5 Roman Leadership
CHAPTER SUMMARY & STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
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Overview
• Chapter 14 traces Rome’s development as
a republic. 
– Section 1 summarizes the rise of Roman
democracy. 
– Section 2 describes the army’s role in the
Roman Republic. 
– Section 3 discusses Rome’s rise to power
in the Mediterranean region. 
– Section 4 analyzes the effects of foreign
conquests. 
– Section 5 examines the attempts to solve
the Republic’s problems.
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Objectives
After studying this chapter, you will be able to:
• describe how the Roman government was
organized. 
• explain how the Roman Republic was able
to expand. 
• summarize how the effects of conquest
changed the Roman economy and
government. 
• discuss efforts to save the Roman
Republic.
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Read to Discover
• How the government of the Roman
Republic was organized 
• How the Roman Republic was able to
expand and protect its territory 
• How the effects of conquest changed
the Roman economy and government
• How reformers attempted to save the
Roman Republic
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
Terms to Learn
• republic 
• patricians 
• plebeians 
• consuls 
• legionaries 
• dictator 
• triumvirate 
People to Know
• Tarquin the
Proud 
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People to Know (cont.)
• Hannibal Barca 
• Tiberius Gracchus 
• Julius Caesar 
• Mark Antony 
• Octavian 
Places to Locate
• Carthage 
• Sicily 
• Gaul 
• Corinth
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Why It’s Important
In 509 B.C., the Romans overthrew Tarquin the Proud,
their Etruscan king, and set up a republic. Under this
form of government, people choose their rulers.
However, not everyone had an equal say in the
Roman Republic. The patricians–members of the
oldest and richest families–were the only ones who
could hold public office or perform certain religious
rituals. Poorer citizens, known as plebeians, paid
taxes and served in the army. Yet they could not
marry patricians or hold office. If they fell into debt,
they could be sold into slavery.
In later years, reformers would take steps to make
the Roman Republic more democratic. The idea of a
government chosen by the people would serve as a
model for future generations, including the founders
of the United States.
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The Government
• At the head of the Roman Republic were
two consuls, administrators and military
leaders, who were chosen each year. 
• As each had the power to veto, or say no
to, the acts of the other, both had to agree
before any law was passed. 
• Next in importance was the Senate. 
• Three hundred senators were chosen for
life to handle daily problems and advise
consuls.
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The Government (cont.)
• Judges, assemblies, and tribunes, or
government officials who protected the rights
of plebeians, were also part of the Roman
government. 
• In 450 B.C., Roman laws were carved on
12 bronze tablets known as the Twelve
Tables and placed in the Forum. 
• The election of tribunes and recording of
laws were the first steps to a more
democratic government.
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Section Assessment
What were some restrictions
placed on the plebeians during
the early years of the Roman
Republic?
They could not marry patricians or
serve in the government, and if they
got into debt, they could be enslaved.
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Section Assessment (cont.)
Demonstrating Reasoned Judgment
Why do you think it was important for
the Romans to have laws written
down?
Answers will vary, but it could be
noted that recording laws makes
them enforceable.
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Section Assessment (cont.)
Draw the diagram on page 220 of
your textbook, and use it to
describe each part of Roman
government.
Descriptions should match each of
the parts of government discussed in
Section 1.
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Roman Expansion
• The Romans worked to protect their republic
because they were afraid that the Etruscans
would try to get back control of Rome. 
• To protect their new boundaries, the
Romans either conquered their neighbors
or made alliances with them. 
• By 146 B.C., Rome ruled most of the
Mediterranean world. 
• The Romans gained territory because
their strong army was organized into
legions.
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Roman Expansion (cont.)
• Each legion contained some 5,000 soldiers
called legionaries and was divided into
groups of 60 to 120 soldiers. 
• The Romans were mild rulers, and as a
result many enemies of Rome became
loyal Roman allies.
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Section Assessment
Why were the Romans able to
gain territory?
They gained territory because they
had a strong army that was
organized into legions.
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Section Assessment (cont.)
What was life life for a Roman
legionary?
They spent hours training each day
and had had to construct fortifications
and roads.
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Section Assessment (cont.)
Drawing Conclusions How would
you describe the way the Romans
treated people they conquered, and
do you think this was wise? Explain.
Answers will vary but it could be
noted that by treating people mildly
Romans gained their loyalty.
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Section Assessment (cont.)
Draw a chart like the one on page
222 of your textbook, and use it to
show the cause and effects of
Roman conquest of Etruscan cities.
causes–wanted to protect the republic,
feared Etruscans might try to retake
Rome
effects–Roman land now bordered other
Italian peoples, conquered or made
alliances with their neighbors, eventually
secured control of the whole peninsula
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The Punic Wars
• By 264 B.C., the Romans had conquered
some Greek city-states in southern Italy,
bringing them into contact with the
Phoenician city of Carthage. 
• The Romans felt threatened by the
Carthaginians, and they also wanted
Sicily’s granaries.
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The First Punic War
• In 264 B.C., the Romans and Carthaginians
clashed in a war that lasted for 23 years. 
• It was the first of three wars between
Rome and Carthage that came to be
known as the Punic Wars. 
• Carthage’s military strength lay in its navy,
while Rome’s lay in its army which
defeated the Carthaginians. 
• In 241 B.C., the Carthaginians agreed to
make peace and left Sicily.
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Hannibal and the Second Punic War
• In 218 B.C., the Second Punic War began. 
• The Carthaginians, led by General
Hannibal Barca, attacked the Roman
army by land from the north. 
• He was unable to capture Rome. 
• Then, the Romans attacked Carthage,
and Hannibal was called home to defend
it and he lost his first battle. 
• In 201 B.C., Carthage agreed to pay Rome
a huge sum of money and to give up all its
territories, including Spain.
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The Third Punic War
• To prevent Carthage from gaining power,
the Romans attacked in 149 B.C., the Third
Punic War. 
• In 146 B.C. the Greek city-state of Corinth
and some of its allies refused to obey a
Roman order. 
• The Romans attacked Corinth and burned
it to the ground. 
• Rome became the leading power of the
Mediterranean world.
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Section Assessment
What territory did Carthage
control in 264 B.C.?
Carthage controlled all of North
Africa, most of Spain, some islands
off the coast of Italy, and the western
half of Sicily.
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Section Assessment (cont.)
What happened to Carthage in
the Third Punic War?
The city was burned, its land was
destroyed by plowing salt into the
fields, and its people were killed or
sold into enslavement.
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Section Assessment (cont.)
How did Rome become the leading
power of the Mediterranean world?
Rome became the leading power by
destroying Corinth and adding
Greece to the areas under its rule.
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Section Assessment (cont.)
Predicting Consequences What
might have happened to Rome if
it had lost the Punic Wars?
Answers will vary but might indicate
that Rome would not have been able to
expand its republic or might have been
taken over by the Carthaginians.
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Section Assessment (cont.)
Draw a chart like the one on page
224 of your textbook, and use it to
summarize the outcome of each of
the Punic Wars.
First–Rome lost many ships and soldiers, but
defeated the Carthaginians and forced them to
leave Sicily.
Second–Carthage agreed to pay Rome a huge
sum of money and give up all its territories,
including Spain.
Third–Rome added Greece to its empire and
became the leading power in the
Mediterranean world.
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Effects of Conquest
• The conquests and the wealth changed
Rome’s economy and government. 
• Among the changes were… 
– the replacement of small farms by large
estates. 
– the coming of slavery. 
– a movement from farms to cities. 
– the decline of the Roman Republic.
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Agricultural Changes
• Rome’s conquests brought changes in
agriculture. 
• Large estates called latifundias replaced
the small farms. 
• Hannibal’s invasion was the main reason
for this change. Roman farmers had
burned their fields and crops to prevent
Hannibal’s soldiers from living off the
land.
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Agricultural Changes (cont.)
• By the end of the Second Punic War, much
of the land was ruined, and small farmers
could not afford to restore the land. 
• Patricians and rich business people
bought small farms and combined them to
make latifundias. 
• Another change in agriculture was in who
worked the land. 
• The Romans sent thousands of prisoners
to Rome as enslaved people to live and
work on latifundias.
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From Farm to City
• The farmers who had sold their land could
stay and work for the new owner or move to
the city. 
• Almost all moved to Rome into crowded
apartments with terrible living conditions. 
• Most farmers could not get jobs and got
money by selling their votes to politicians.
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Decline of the Roman Empire
• As Rome’s rule spread beyond Italy, the
Romans began to demand taxes and
enslaved people. 
• Tax contracts were sold to people called
publicans who collected taxes from the
conquered people. 
• By about 135 B.C., Rome was in a great
deal of trouble. 
• The gap between rich and poor and
political unrest grew greater and Rome
was no longer politically stable.
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Section Assessment
How was Roman agriculture
influenced by Hannibal?
Roman farmers burned their fields
and crops. After the Second Punic
War, most farmers did not have
money to restore the land, so
latifundias appeared, which produced
cash crops. Farmers were replaced
by enslaved peoples.
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Section Assessment (cont.)
What was it like in Rome during
the decline of the republic?
Life was hard for most farmers,
merchants, and artisans. Government
officials became rich and the gap
between rich and poor grew greater.
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Section Assessment (cont.)
Identifying Central Issues Why
might a large gap between rich
and poor present problems for
an empire?
Answers will vary but you might
indicate risk of rebellion.
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Section Assessment (cont.)
Draw the diagram on page 226 of
your textbook, and use it to compare
Roman agriculture before and after
the rise of latifundias.
Roman agriculture shifted from hard
working farmers loyal to Rome to
large estates where enslaved people
produced cash crops for sale. This
led to a large gap between the rich
and poor and ultimately the decline of
the Roman Republic.
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Roman Leadership
• Over the next 100 years, many different
popular leaders–reformers and generals–
tried to improve conditions in Rome.
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Section 5 begins on page 227 of your textbook.
The Reformers
• Tiberius Gracchus became a tribune in 133
B.C. and was the first reformer. 
• He wanted to limit the amount of land a
person could own. 
• He was killed in a riot staged by the Senate
when he ran for a second term as tribune. 
• In 123 B.C., Tiberius Gracchus’s younger
brother, Gaius Gracchus, was elected
tribune. 
• When the Senate began to feel threatened
by his ideas in 121 B.C. they had him killed.
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The Generals
• In 107 B.C., General Gaius Marius, a military
hero, became consul. 
• Marius thought he could end Rome’s
troubles by setting up a professional army,
open to everyone. 
• Another general, Lucius Cornelius Sulla,
was given a military command that Marius
wanted. 
• Marius tried to get the assembly to take the
command away from Sulla.
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The Generals (cont.)
• An angry Sulla marched his army and
seized Rome and civil war broke out. 
• When it was over, Sulla made himself
dictator, or absolute ruler, of Rome.
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Julius Caesar
• When Sulla retired, a new group of generals
fought for control of Rome. 
• In 60 B.C., political power passed to a
triumvirate, or a group of three persons
with equal power. 
• Julius Caesar finally gained control, after
a power struggle, in 48 B.C. 
• In 58 B.C., Caesar was named governor of
a Roman province and built up a large,
strong loyal army.
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Julius Caesar (cont.)
• The Senate ordered him in 50 B.C. to break
up his legions and return to Rome. 
• Instead, Caesar entered the city at the
head of his troops, and by 46 B.C., he was
dictator of Rome. 
• Caesar brought about many reforms of
land and wealth distribution. 
• Some Romans were afraid that Caesar
planned to make himself king. 
• As he entered the Senate on March 15,
44 B.C., Caesar was stabbed to death.
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End of the Republic
• Political power passed to another
triumvirate. 
– Marcus Antonius, or Mark Antony, Caesar’s
closest follower and a popular general, took
command of Rome’s territories in the East. 
– Octavian, Caesar’s grand-nephew and adopted
son, took charge of the West. 
– Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, one of Caesar’s top
officers, took over the rule of Africa. 
• For a while, the triumvirate worked. Then
fights broke out, leaving Octavian as sole
ruler of the Roman Empire in 31 B.C.
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Section Assessment
Why did civil war break out in
Rome?
The rise of a professional army more
loyal to its commanders than Rome
and conflicts between Marius and
Sulla led to civil war.
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Section Assessment (cont.)
Why did a group of Roman
Senators murder Julius Caesar?
They murdered Caesar because they
feared he planned to make himself
king.
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Section Assessment (cont.)
Demonstrating Reasoned Judgment
How effective do you think a
triumvirate is as a form of
government? Explain.
Some might see a triumvirate as a
way to check executive power. Other
might see it as divisive and an
invitation to conspiracy.
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Section Assessment (cont.)
Draw the chart on page 230 of your
textbook, and use it to summarize the
reforms supported by popular leaders
during the closing years of the
Roman Republic.
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Chapter Summary & Study Guide
• In 509 B.C., the Romans overthrew the
Etruscans and set up a republic. 
• About 450 B.C., leaders wrote down Roman
laws in the Twelve Tables. 
• By 275 B.C., well-trained Roman legions
had taken control of Italy. 
• Between 264 and 146 B.C., Rome and
Carthage fought three wars known as the
Punic Wars.
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Chapter Summary & Study Guide (cont.)
• The organization of Roman lands into large
estates forced many small farmers off the
land and into the cities. 
• By 135 B.C., Rome faced many serious
political and economic problems. 
• A series of reform-minded leaders tried
various ways to improve conditions in
Rome, but political rivalries prevented any
leader from holding power for long.
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Chapter Summary & Study Guide (cont.)
• After Julius Caesar was killed by Romans
who feared he might become king, power
was divided among three leaders. 
• Fights among the three-way rule of Mark
Antony, Octavian, and Marcus Lepidus led
to the collapse of the Roman Republic. 
• In 31 B.C., Octavian became the sole ruler
of the Roman Empire.
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Understanding the Main Idea
What changes were made in
Rome’s government as a result of
demands by the plebeians?
No one could be enslaved because
of debt, and plebeians could marry
patricians and hold public office.
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Understanding the Main Idea
Why was the Roman legion so
effective in battle?
because it was small and fast and
could split off and attack from all
sides
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Understanding the Main Idea
Why did Rome decide to fight three
wars against Carthage?
Rome fought the wars because it felt
threatened by Carthage and wanted
the Carthaginian granaries in Sicily.
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Understanding the Main Idea
How were the Romans able to
overcome the navy of Carthage?
They added a corvus to the front of
their ships, thus changing a sea war
into a land war.
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Understanding the Main Idea
What effect did latifundias have on
Rome’s small farmers?
They forced many farmers to move to
the city.
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the answer.
Understanding the Main Idea
Who won the struggle for political
power after the death of Julius
Caesar?
Octavian
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Understanding the Main Idea
What effect did Marius’s reforms
have on the loyalty of the
legionaries?
Marius’s reforms shifted the loyalty of
legionaries from the government to
the general who hired them.
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Understanding the Main Idea
Why did the Senate order Julius
Caesar to break up his legions?
The Senate ordered this because
they feared he was growing too
strong.
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Critical Thinking
How wise do you think the Romans
were to enslave the people they
conquered? Explain.
Answers will vary, but one could note
that enslaving conquered people
caused dissent.
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Critical Thinking
Do you think the Romans were
wise or foolish to start taxing the
people they conquered? Explain.
Answers will vary, but taxing
coincided with the Republic’s decline.
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Critical Thinking
If you had lived in Rome after
135 B.C., what would you have done
to solve its problems?
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Critical Thinking
If you had lived when Caesar was
killed, how would you have felt
about his murder? Explain.
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Geography in History
Movement Refer to the map on page
228 of your textbook. Imagine you
are a government representative
who must travel from Rome to
Cyprus. Describe how you would
travel and what route you would
take. Then draw a map showing your
route.
Answers will vary and may include a sea
route by ship or a land-sea route involving
horses, carts, and ships.
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the answer.
Predict what will happen: Julius
Caesar was not murdered in 44 B.C.
He continued as ruler of Rome, but
was advised to share ruling with
Mark Antony. The Senate has
resigned in protest against Caesar’s
laws. Caesar must do something–
what?
71
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73
31 B.C.
74
509 B.C.
264 B.C.
Romans set up
republic
Punic Wars
begin
Octavian
becomes sole
ruler of Roman
Empire
450 B.C.
46 B.C.
Twelve
Tables are
written
Julius Caesar
appointed dictator
of Rome
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Julius Caesar
102 B.C.–44 B.C.
Roman General/Statesman
Born into one of the oldest patrician
families in Rome, Gaius Julius Caesar
knew politics could be a dangerous job.
Even so, he had a big advantage–the
loyalty of the legions who served him.
The legions helped Caesar become the
reform-minded ruler of Rome, but they
could not save him from murder by the
senators who felt his popularity and
power threatened the republic.
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Carthage
Hannibal’s Strength
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Carthage
Marcus Portius Cato, a prominent
statesman and writer, believed that
Carthage posed a great threat to Rome.
He reportedly ended every speech–no
matter what the subject–with
“Carthage must be destroyed!”
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Hannibal’s Strength
Hannibal began crossing the Alps with
about 46,000 troops and 37 elephants.
He emerged with 26,000 troops and
almost no elephants. A Roman general
proclaimed: “They are ghosts and
shadows of men already half dead. All
their strength has been crushed and
beaten out of them by the Alpine
crags.” The general was wrong. The
Gauls, who were enemies of the
Romans, joined Hannibal and boosted
his army to almost 50,000.
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Rank and File
The basic unit of the Roman legion was
the maniple–120 soldiers standing side
by side in ranks of 10 and lined up one
behind another in files of 12. The term
rank and file, which refers to the
ordinary members of an organization,
comes from this military system.
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