PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Chapter 3.6
Art of Renaissance and Baroque Europe
(1400–1750)
Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
Chapter 3.6 Art of Renaissance and Baroque Europe
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Introduction
 Renaissance (1400–1600)

Means “rebirth”

Refers to the time period and the style of art

A renewed interest in Classical thinking, mythology, and art
 Humanism

Philosophical approach that stressed the intellectual and physical
potential of human beings
 Religion

Reformation and Counter-Reformation
• Catholic and Protestant beliefs were reflected in the art of the Italian
Renaissance and the northern Renaissance
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Chapter 3.6 Art of Renaissance and Baroque Europe
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Introduction
 Baroque (1600–1750)

Refers to the time period and the style of art

Increase in trade, advancements in science

Permanent split between Roman Catholics and Protestants

Baroque art tends to be full of motion and emotion
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
3.117 Map of Renaissance and Baroque Europe
3.118 Portrait of Michelangelo
from Giorgio Vasari’s Lives of the
Great Artists, second edition,
1568. Engraving
Chapter 3.6 Art of Renaissance and Baroque Europe
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
The Early Renaissance in Italy
 Renewed interest in the Classical past

Study of mathematics and science encouraged the systematic
understanding of the world
 Art was a balance of the real and ideal

Realistic depictions of three-dimensional space and perspective

Idealistic portrayal of mythological or religious subjects, and the
nude figure
 The artist Giotto represents the transition between the art
of the Middle Ages and the early Renaissance (see chapter
3.2)
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
3.119 Arnolfo di Cambio and others,
Florence Cathedral, view from
south, begun 1296
3.120 Filippo Brunelleschi,
Dome of Florence
Cathedral, 1417–36
3.121 Masaccio, Tribute Money, c. 1427. Fresco, 8’1” × 19’7”. Brancacci Chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence, Italy
Chapter 3.6 Art of Renaissance and Baroque Europe
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
The High Renaissance in Italy
 Beginning of the 16th century
 Continued development of making art look “believable”

Rules of perspective

Ideal and real

Religious and mythological subject matter
 Three great Italian artists dominated this period:

Leonardo da Vinci

Michelangelo

Raphael
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
3.122 Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, c. 1497. Refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy
3.123 Michelangelo, Detail of Creation of Adam, Sistine Chapel ceiling, 1508–12. Vatican City
3.124 Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Vatican
City, with view of Last Judgment (1534–41)
3.126 Michelangelo, Detail of Last
Judgment showing self-portrait in St.
Bartholomew’s skin, 1536–41. Sistine
Chapel, Vatican City
3.125 Raphael, The School of Athens, 1510–11. Fresco, 16’8” × 25’. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican City
Chapter 3.6 Art of Renaissance and Baroque Europe
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
The Renaissance in Northern Europe
 Northern European countries we now know as the
Netherlands, Germany, France, and Belgium
 During the fifteenth century, artists in northern Europe:

Continued using methods established in the Middle Ages
• Those used for illuminated manuscripts (see chapter 3.2)

Paid careful attention to texture and fine detail

Developed oil painting techniques

Depicted everyday objects with religious symbolism

Were considered the finest artists in Europe at the time
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
3.127a Jan van Eyck, Analysis of The Arnolfini Portrait, 1434. Oil on panel, 32⅜ × 23⅝”. National Gallery, London
3.127b Detail of Jan van Eyck, The Arnolfini Portrait
3.128 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Netherlandish Proverbs, 1559. Oil on oak, 3’10” × 5’2”. Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen, Berlin,
Germany
3.129a Detail from Pieter
Bruegel the Elder,
Netherlandish Proverbs,
illustrating the proverb the
“world turned upside down”
3.129b Detail from Pieter Bruegel
the Elder, Netherlandish Proverbs,
illustrating the proverb “beating his
head against a wall”
3.129c Detail from Pieter Bruegel
the Elder, Netherlandish
Proverbs, illustrating two women
gossiping: the proverb “one winds
the distaff, the other spins it”
3.130 Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece (closed), c. 1510–15. Oil on panel, center panel: Crucifixion, 8’9⅝” × 10’; predella:
Lamentation, 29⅞” × 11’1⅞”; side panels: Saints Sebastian and Anthony 7’6⅝” × 29½” each, Musée d’Unterlinden, Colmar, France
3.131 Albrecht Dürer, The Last Supper, 1523. Woodcut, 8⅜ × 11⅞”. British Museum, London, England
Chapter 3.6 Art of Renaissance and Baroque Europe
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Late Renaissance and Mannerism
 c. 1530–1600
 A time of historical upheaval


1527 Sack of Rome
1530 Charles V crowned Holy Roman Emperor
 Late Renaissance art



A reaction to the high Renaissance
Dissonance instead of harmony
Distortion rather than precision
 Mannerism


From the Italian “di maniera,” which means charm, grace
Exaggeration for emotional effect
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
3.132 Sofonisba Anguissola, Portrait of the Artist’s Sisters Playing Chess, 1555. Oil on canvas, 28⅜ × 38¼”. National Museum,
Poznań, Poland
3.133 Paolo Veronese, Christ in the House of Levi, 1573. Oil on canvas, 7’3⅜” × 16’8⅞”. Galleria dell’Accademia, Venice, Italy
3.134 Tintoretto,The Last Supper, 1592–4. Oil on canvas, 11’11¾” × 18’7⅝”. San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, Italy
3.135 Jacopo da Pontormo,
Deposition, 1525–8. Oil on
wood, 123¼ × 75⅝”.
Capponi Chapel, Santa
Felicita, Florence, Italy
3.136 El Greco, Laocoön, c. 1610/14. Oil on canvas, 54⅛ × 68”. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
3.137 Donatello, David, c. 1430. Bronze,
5’2¼” high. Museo Nazionale del Bargello,
Florence, Italy
3.138 Michelangelo, David, 1501–4.
Marble, 14’2⅞” high. Galleria
dell’Accademia, Florence, Italy
3.139 Gianlorenzo Bernini,
David, 1623. Marble, 5’7” high.
Galleria Borghese, Rome, Italy
Chapter 3.6 Art of Renaissance and Baroque Europe
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
The Baroque
 Time of exploration and discovery

Theory that the sun was the center of the universe now accepted
 Religion

Post-Reformation
 Warfare

Battles throughout Europe
 Artwork characteristics:

Emphasis on light

Diversity of approaches

Dramatic movement and theatrical compositions
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
3.142 Caravaggio, Judith Decapitating Holofernes, 1599. Oil on canvas, 4’9” × 6’4¾”. Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Antica, Rome, Italy
3.143 Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith Decapitating Holofernes, c. 1620. Oil on canvas, 6’6⅜” × 5’3¾”. Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy
3.140 Nicolas Poussin, The Funeral of Phocion, 1648. Oil on canvas, 44⅞” × 68⅞”. National Museum of Wales, Cardiff
3.141 Peter Paul Rubens, center
panel from The Raising of the Cross,
1610–11. Oil on canvas, 5’1⅛” ×
11’1⅞”. Cathedral of Our Lady,
Antwerp, Belgium
3.144 Rembrandt van Rijn, The Company of Frans Banning Cocq and Willem van Ruytenburch (The Night Watch), 1642. Oil on
canvas, 11’11” × 14’4”. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Chapter 3.6 Art of Renaissance and Baroque Europe
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
The following videos will show you more about the art and
architecture of the Renaissance and the Baroque:
St. Peter’s Basilica and the Sistine Chapel
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Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Chapter 3.6 Art of Renaissance and Baroque Europe
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Gianlorenzo Bernini: The Ecstasy of St.
Teresa
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Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Chapter 3.6 Art of Renaissance and Baroque Europe
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Sandro Botticelli: The Birth of Venus
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Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Chapter 3.6 Art of Renaissance and Baroque Europe
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Diego Velázquez: Las Meninas
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Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Chapter 3.6 Art of Renaissance and Baroque Europe
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Discussion Question
1. Find two examples of artwork in this chapter in which
linear perspective plays an important part. Point out the
parts of the composition that use linear perspective to
create the desired illusion. Discuss what the artist wants to
communicate by using linear perspective.
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
Chapter 3.6 Art of Renaissance and Baroque Europe
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Discussion Question
2. From this chapter choose a northern Renaissance artwork
and an Italian Renaissance work. List the prominent
characteristics of each. Include information about both
the form and the content of the artworks in your lists.
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
Chapter 3.6 Art of Renaissance and Baroque Europe
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Discussion Question
3. Select three artworks that deal with subject matter from
the Bible. Consider how they portray their biblical
themes: examine style, medium and technique, content,
and any other aspects that the artist emphasizes. You
might choose works from this chapter, or elsewhere in the
textbook. For example: 1.70, 2.148, 4.163.
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
Chapter 3.6 Art of Renaissance and Baroque Europe
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Discussion Question
4. Select a Renaissance work and a Baroque work from this
chapter. List their similarities and differences. Consider
their subject matter, style, content, and emotional impact.
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
Chapter 3.6 Art of Renaissance and Baroque Europe
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Discussion Question
5. Select three Renaissance artworks that draw on the
artistic and intellectual heritage of Classical Greece and
Rome. Make a list of the ways in which they use the
Classical past. Make another list of any Renaissance
innovations, either in terms of form or content. You might
choose one work from another chapter in the textbook, for
example: 4.133, 4.136.
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
Chapter 3.6 Art of Renaissance and Baroque Europe
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
This concludes the PowerPoint slide set for Chapter 3.6
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts
By Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, M. Kathryn Shields
Copyright © 2011 Thames & Hudson
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Chapter 3.6 Art of Renaissance and Baroque Europe
PART 3
HISTORY AND CONTEXT
Picture Credits for Chapter 3.6
3.117
Drazen Tomic
3.118
From Vasari, G., Lives of the Great Artists, 1568
3.119
© Michael S. Yamashita/Corbis
3.120
Libreria dello Stato, Rome
3.121
Brancacci Chapel, Church of Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence
3.122
Refectory of Sta Maria delle Grazie, Milan
3.123, 3.124 Vatican Museums, Rome
3.125
Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Museums, Rome
3.126
Vatican Museums, Rome
3.127a, 3.127b National Gallery, London/Scala, Florence
3.128, 3.129a, 3.129b, 3.129c Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen, Berlin
3.130
Musée d’Unterlinden, Colmar
3.131
British Museum, London
3.132
Museum Narodowe, Poznan´/Bridgeman Art Library
3.133 Galleria dell’Accademia, Venice
3.134
Cameraphoto/Scala, Florence
3.135
Capponi Chapel, Church of Santa Felicità, Florence
3.136
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., Samuel H. Kress Collection, 1946.18.1
3.137
Photo Scala, Florence, courtesy Ministero Beni e Att. Culturali
3.138
© nagelestock.com/Alamy
3.139
Photo Scala, Florence, courtesy Ministero Beni e Att. Culturali
3.140
The Earl of Plymouth. On loan to the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff
3.141
Royal Institute for the Study and Conservation of Belgium’s Artistic Heritage
3.142
Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Antica, Rome
3.143
Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
3.144
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
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Chapter 3.6 Art of Renaissance and Baroque Europe