Nationalism in Asia
World Studies Summer School
2011
Japan ends Isolation
• Early 1600s Japan shut itself off from the rest of the
world
• Some trade with China and Dutch in Indonesia was it
• By Early 1800s Western powers tried to convince Japan
to open up as China had.
• In 1883 Commodore Perry takes 4 Ships into Tokyo
Harbor
• The Black Wooden Ships powered by Steam with
cannon not seen before shock the Shogun Feudal
society
• Realizing they would not be able to survive a fight, they
received Perry and his letter from President Fillmore
asking for free trade between U.S. and Japan.
• Perry also adds that he will return in a year for Japan’s
reply with a much larger fleet.
Japan gives in
• When Perry arrives in 1854 he receives
the Treaty of Kanagawa.
– Japan will open two ports where U.S. ships
can take on supplies.
• By 1860 Several foreign countries have
permission to trade in several treaty ports.
• The Japanese people were angry the
Shogun had given in to Western demands.
• They turn to Japans young emperor.
Mutsuhito
Emperor Takes Control
• Mutsuhito taking control ends Shogun
control that had lasted since the 12th
century.
• This becomes known as the Meiji Era
“Enlightened Rule”
• Emperor realizes the best way to counter
Western Influences is to become like them
and modernize.
• This is the opposite of what China does.
Modernization of Japan
• Sends Diplomats to learn Western ways
• Took the best ideas and adapted them to
their own country
• Model their constitution and Government
on Germany
• Model Army on Germany, Navy on Britain
• Japan adopts U.S. Universal education
system
• Encourages Students to go Study abroad
Industrialization of Japan
• By early 1900s, Japan was as industrialized as
any Nation in the world.
• Built first Railroad in 1872, by 1914 Japan had
more than 7000 miles of Railroad.
• Coal production grew from 500,000 tons in 1875
to 21 million tons in 1913.
• State supported companies build thousands of
Factories.
• Traditional industries grow with new production
methods giving Japan more unique goods for
export
• Shipbuilding Industry becomes one of largest in
the world
Strategy Pays Off
• By 1890, Japan becomes dominant military
power in Asia
• They began to remove the extraterritorial rights
of foreign countries
• They are able to convince the foreign countries
they will still allow trade rights, just no more
territorial rights.
• Western countries accept diminished rights and
Japanese feeling of strength and nationalism
grow.
• As their power grows, so does their ambitions.
Japan gets Imperialism
• Japan wants to demonstrate to Europeans they
are just as powerful.
– Japan wants Korea
– So does China
• They sign hands off agreement in 1885
– Chinese troops enter Korea in 1894 when the King
asks for Chinese help.
– Japan protests saying China broke agreement
• Sends troops to Korea to fight Chinese
– Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895
• Japan wins quickly
• Destroys Chinese Navy
• Gains first colonies
Russo-Japanese War
• Japan defeating China changes balance of
power.
• Japan and Russia now dominant powers
in East Asia
• They go to War over Manchuria
– Japanese agree to stay out of Manchuria if
Russians stay out of Korea
– Russians refuse
• War breaks out
Russo-Japanese War Results
•
•
•
•
Japanese drive Russians out of Korea
Captures most of Russian Pacific Fleet
Destroys all of Russia’s Baltic Fleet
Treaty of Portsmouth
– Japan gets to keep captured Territory
– Russia must leave Manchuria
– Russia must stay out of Korea
• Japan now wants ALL of Korea
Japanese occupation of Korea
• Japan makes Korea a Protectorate in 1905
• 1907 Korean Government gives up control
• 1910 Japan officially Annexes Korea and is totally under
Japanese control.
• Japanese were harsh rulers
• Korean Language and study was banned from schools
and Japanese culture and language was forced to be
taught
• Land taken away and given to Japanese interests
• Koreans could not own businesses
• While countries around the world were concerned about
what Japan was doing, they largely did nothing to stop
them.
Japan Wants an Empire
• 1920s Japan becomes more Democratic.
– 1922 Sign treaty with China respecting their
borders
– 1928 signs the Kellogg-Briand Pact
renouncing war.
• Great Depression 1929
– Military blames civilian government and
people want military back in power.
– Military wanted to solve economic problems
through foreign expansion.
Japan invades Manchuria
• Manchuria – Northeast province of China
– Rich in Iron and coal
– Army set up puppet government
– Japanese engineers and technicians come to
build large mines and factories.
• First Challenge to the League of Nations
– Many members of League protested
– Japan simply left League in 1933
Japan Invades China
• 1937 Japan invades China
– China’s Army no match for better equipped
and trained Japanese.
– Beijing and other major cities fell including
capital of Nanjing
– Over 10,00 captured soldiers are killed
– 1936 Japan joins Germany and Italy in the
Axis Powers
Japanese aggression continues
• Due to the tough resistance in China, Japan
needed more resources.
– Japan focuses on European colonies in
Southeast Asia
• Japan overruns French controlled Vietnam, Cambodia,
and Laos. July 1941.
• U.S. now fears Japanese invasion of U.S. controlled
Philippines and Guam
– President Roosevelt cuts off Oil Shipments to
Japan.
– Japan attacks Pearl Harbor Dec. 7th 1941
• By end of January Japan controls Thailand, Phillipines,
Guam, Wake Island, and Hong Kong
Japan Loses War
• U.S. Occupation forces Japan to
completely disband Army leaving only a
small police force.
– 6 war criminals including Premier Tojo,
sentenced to Hang.
• New Japanese constitution
– Power rests in the people
– Emperor had to admit he is not divine and
becomes only a figurehead
• With U.S. help, Japan is rebuilt and a
lasting friendship is begun.
Assignment
• Questions:
– P.813 # 1-8
British in India
• East India company gain control of India in 1757
• Company rules India without interference from
British Government until 1800s
• With the amount of raw materials and the
growing market for British goods, the British
government begins to increase its control.
• In 1858, British government takes complete
control of India after the Sepoy Mutiny.
• British repress and exhibit racism against native
Indians.
India wants British out
• Indian National Congress Founded 1885
– Primarily Hindu Group
• Muslim League founded 1906
• Common ground between Muslim’s and
Hindu’s were hatred of British
• Groups work together for Independence
• Before WWI Nationalist movement was
small
WWI changes India
• British entice Indians to Join Army for WWI
by saying their would be reforms after war
which would lead to increased civil rights
and eventually Self-Government.
• When they return from war, They continue
to be treated as second class citizens
• Acts of Violence occur against British
which result in the Rowlatt Acts
• Allows British to jail protesters for 2 years
without trial.
Enter Gandhi
• Mohandas Gandhi
• Blends ideas from all religions
• Western educated and trained as a lawyer in
London.
• Noncooperation/Nonviolence and Civil
Disobedience
– Strikes
– Boycotts
– Demonstrations
• Freedom From British through Nonviolent
means
• See Movie….
Nonviolence movement takes toll
on British
• By the time WWII ended Britain had huge
war debts and the Nationalism movements
in India has taken a great toll on the British
Economy
• Britain decided it was time to give up India
• Now a new dilemma presented itself
• Who would rule?
– Muslims?
– Hindus?
British decide fate
• Britain decides partition into two countries is best
choice.
• This creates Pakistan in Northwest India and East
Pakistan in the east for Muslims.
• Gandhi was upset by partition believing they could
all live together.
• India Becomes Independent Nation Aug. 15, 1947
• Attacks by Hindus on fleeing Muslims and vice
versa erupted all over the country.
• In an attempt to plead with Hindus to give Muslim
refugees fair treatment, Gandhi is assassinated by a
Hindu extremist.
Pakistan and India
• Both countries have struggled with a variety of
issues over the last 60 years
• East Pakistan broke off from Pakistan in 1971 to
form the country of Bangladesh
– Both countries have more than 35% of the people
living in poverty
• India and Pakistan are in a constant struggle
against one another
• Both claim the northern border area of Kashmir
as their own.
• Both are Nuclear Powers
• India’s population is expected to overcome
China’s as the worlds largest by 2035
Nationalism in the Middle East
• Turkey
– Fall of Ottoman Empire forces last Sultan to
give up all land Except Anatolia and Istanbul
– Greeks invade in 1919
– 1922 brilliant commander Mustafa Kemal
leads Turkish Nationalists to fight back
Greeks.
– After winning, they overthrow the last Ottoman
Sultan
Turkey becomes Republic
• Kemal becomes first president
• New reforms
– Separates laws of Islam from laws of nation
– Abolishes religious courts and creates new legal
system based on European Law
– Grants women right to vote and hold office
– Launches programs to modernize and industrialize
Turkey.
• Kemal’s Leadership give country new sense of
Identity
– After his death in 1938 he is given the name of
Ataturk or “Father of the Turks”
Iran
• After WWI British and Russia both had areas of
influence in the country of ancient Persia
• British tried to kick Russians out after the
Bolshevik revolution.
• Leads to Nationalist revolt
– 1921 Persian officer gains power
– 1925 kicks out ruling Shah
– New Leader Reza Shah Pahlavi
• Tries to Modernize country like Kemal
• Builds roads, schools, promotes industrial growth and
women’s rights
• Unlike Kemal though he keeps all power in his hands
• Changes country name from Greek name Persia to
traditional name Iran
Saudi Arabia
• While Turkey broke from Islamic Traditions, The
new country of Saudi Arabia embraced them
• 1902 Abd al Aziz Ibn Saud begins campaign to
unite Arabia.
• In 1932 he named the new Kingdom Saudi Arabia
after his family
• The new King carries on Arab and Islamic traditions
• Loyalty to government was based on family ties,
religion and customs.
• Modernization limited to religiously accepted areas
• No efforts at democracy, Religious and Family Rule
OIL!
• During 1920s and 30s Oil is discovered in
the Middle East.
• Soon the race to see who could claim
what would change the structure and
importance of the area.
• Geologist eventually discover 2/3rds of the
worlds oil deposits are found in the Middle
East
Assignment
• Questions:
–P.795 #1, 3-8
–P.891 #1, 3-8
–P.1003 #1, 3-8
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Nationalism in Asia