World War I
Aim: How did World War I have
devastating global effects?
New technology
Machine guns
Artillery (cannons) i.e. “Big Bertha”
Gas grenades
Transportation (trains, automobiles)
Communication (radios, telephones)
Naval Units technology
War: Fantasy vs. Realilty
• The following slides are courtesy of:
t#1War: Fantasy vs. Realilty
By Miss Boughey
The British government
wanted to encourage
men to enlist for war.
They said the war
would be safe, hardly
any fighting, a good
lark and over by
A picture of soldiers going
‘Over the Top’
They used advertising
posters to encourage
this idea!
The reality of ‘going over the top’ was
very different!
Soldiers were expected to carry all of their
equipment with them at all times.
They were supposed to keep it clean and in good
condition – they were British after all.
How the uniform and equipment changed
after just three weeks in the trenches…
Posters always
showed men ready
and willing to fight.
They never showed
the boredom of the
trenches or actual
fighting taking place.
Why do you think the
government showed
no fighting?
No smiling and relaxed faces…
No clean uniforms…
Their equipment is scattered
Boredom and sleep are
The soldiers had very
little decent food,
and what food they
had was often
attacked by rats.
These rats were the
size of small rabbits
and badgers because
they had fed on the
decomposing bodies
of dead soldiers.
• Initially believed to be a symptom of poor
morale by military authorities, 'trench foot'
was in fact a fungal infection of the feet
brought on by prolonged exposure to
damp, cold conditions allied to poor
environmental hygiene.
Google images
By Ms Stubbs
Downloaded from
The Dead (1914)
R. Brooke
Poetry from the First World War was written
by soldiers who served at the Western Front.
• They saw the horrors of War first hand.
• They wrote about what they really saw.
• Their poems were published just after the
war, so they were not censored. They are
first hand and often unbiased sources.
Wilfred Owen is one of the
more famous War Poets.
He was (British) born March
18th, 1893.
He joined the Army in 1915 as
an Officer in the “Artists
Wilfred Owen served in some
of the worst conditions during
the following months.
By Wilfred Owen
Dulce et Decorum Est
Bent double like old beggars under sacks,
Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge,
Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs
And towards our distant rest began to trudge.
November 4th, 1918:
Owen and his men went ‘over the top’.
He was shot and killed by German
machine guns on the banks of the
Sambre-Ouse Canal (Northern France).
The War ended just a week later on November 11th.
Wilfred Owen was 25 years old.
Compare the poems of Brooke and Owen,
specifically with their attitudes toward war.
Why did the U.S. enter World War I?
• President Wilson had wanted the U.S. to
remain neutral and not get pulled into World
War I.
• Wilson's Declaration of Neutrality
Rising Tensions
• In 1915 a German U-Boat sank The Lusitania, a
British passenger liner.
• 124 Americans were killed on board this ship.
• The Germans tried to prevent shipments from
reaching the British and attacked U.S. merchant
ships en route to Britain.
• This all shifted American opinion against
• Wilson's note to Germany
The Zimmerman Telegram
• The Zimmerman Note (Background and
the telegram itself).
The U.S. entered the War on
April 2, 1917
When it was all over…
More than 8.5 million were dead
17 million wounded
Famine and disease were widespread in many regions.
The financial cost of the war is said to have amounted to
almost $38 billion for Germany alone; Britain spent $35
billion, France $24 billion, Russia $22 billion, USA $22
billion and Austria-Hungary $20 billion. In total the war
cost the Allies around $125 billion; the Central Powers
$60 billion. (