Arya Nagarjuna Biographical sketches Arya Nagarjuna It is accepted that Arya Nagarjuna was not only the pioneer of Madhyamaka system but also he was the originator of Mahayana according to some writers. But it is not easy to find a proper biography of him. We cannot find anything of him from him books. Taranatha, a Tibetan writer’s book “History of Buddhism” (Tr.Schiefner) which was written in 1608 has a chapter of Nagarjuna. Arya Nagarjuna Another Tibetan writer lived earlier to Taranatha, Bu-ston’s (1290-1364) “History of Buddhism” (Tr.by Obermiller) as to the information of Nagarjuna, he was born at Vidarbha city of Maharastra. He was ordain In Nalanda at the very young age received Education from teacher called Rahulabhadra (Rahula Sribhadra). Arya Nagarjuna As he had a sharp knowledge in a very short period of time finalized his education and became an expert on Buddhist Philosophy. According to Chinese sources he was born in a Brahmin family in South India. He received the education on Veda and Vedanga and after that he was ordained. At first he studied Hinayana Arya Nagarjuna But later he learned Mahayana Sutras from a monk who was near Himalayas. According to the Chinese and Tibetan information he has gained knowledge on secret science and, Chemical studies and he became an expert on them. He maintain the relationship With the King of Nagas.It is said he lived long time as to Arya Nagarjuna The power of secret science and with the power of chemicals. According to the relationship he had with Naga king in Naga Loka he has gone to the Naga world on an invitation of Naga King. Naga King gave him ‘Sata sahasrika Prajnaparamita”. He brought that large volume to human world and started to teach it. This teaching inspired to commence the System of Mahayana. Arya nagarjuna According to Taranatha’s details Nagarjuna was a guide for the both Hinayana and Mahayana monks. He supported to built Pagods and temples And by that way he did a great service for the Buddhasasana. At the last part of his life he went to the Southern part of India and says he has converted King Udayana Arya Nagarjuna Nagarjunas life story is full of myths and old legends among those legends scholars accepted only Nagarjuna was born in the South Andra province and he had connections with King Satavahana dynasty “Suhurllekha” ( a letter to a friend) volume was written to one of the kings of satavahana dynasty. As to A.K.Warder Arya Nagarjuna This king was non other than famous literary person and literary sponsor and who reconstructed the Amaravati temple King 2nd Pulumayi. The Nagarjuni Konda in Andra province is a proof for the historicity of Nagarjuna, an inscription near the Pagoda of Jagayyapura also mentions about Arya Nagarjuna. Therefore Nagarjuna has been the historical teacher. Arya Nagarjuna As to the Tibetan Buddhist tradition which treated Arya Nagarjuna as a Second Buddha believed to be lived around 400 years. He could have lived 400 years due to the knowledge of Secret science (Gupta vidya) and the knolwedge of chemistry. But modern scholars accepted these stories to show how much respect Tibetan Buddhist tradition had towards Arya Nagarjuna Arya Nagarjuna. According to these stories we have to accept at least there have been few teachers in the name of Nagarjuna. There is an Indian custom some writers write books and ascribe them to the name of a famous teachers. According to that system some famous writers when compiled books they ascribed Arya Nagarjuna Them to the Name of Nagarjuna. But we have to clarify among those teachers who have written Mulamadhyamaka Karika and when he lived. Nagarjuna’s Time Arya Nagarjuna’s time is a controvercial issue. Scholars only infer about his time. There are many Chinese sources mention Arya Nagarjuna That Arya Nagarjuna lived in the 3rd Century. This calculation was done as to the Hui Yuan teacher. This teacher Hui yuan thinks Arya Nagarjuna lived in the 9th Century after the decease of the Buddha. He takes the 637 B.C.year of the Buddha’s Parinirvana. Kumarajiva lived in 04th century (344413) and has translated biography of Arya Nagarjuna Nagarjuna in to Chinese. In that book it was mentioned about a pagoda which was built 100 years after his death for the commemoration of Arya Nagarjuna. If we consider that this book was written in the middle of the 4th Century then we can conclude the time of Nagarjuna is the 3rd Century. This study is done by R.H. Robinson Arya Nagarjuna (Early Madhyamaka in India and China. Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1976). Robinson also thinks that Nagarjuna lived in the 3rd Century. T.R.V.Murti mentions Nagarjuna might have lived in the 2nd Century. Therefore it is better to accept that Nagarjuna lived between second and third Century. Arya Nagarjuna Works of Nagarjuna There are a lot of books, which were ascribed the authorship of Nagarjuna. Among those books we have to select the books for which we can ascribe real authorship of Nagarjuna. China is the country where the Madhyamaka Philosophy first spread outside India. In China Madhyamaka Arya Nagarjuna Philosophy is known as Catur Sastra Nikaya or Thri Sastra Nikaya. (Sata Sastra, Madhyamka Sastra, and Maha Paramita Sastra basing on these books Tri Sastra name is given and it was named as Catussastra Nikaya after adding for these books Famous Kumarajiva’s Dvadasamukha Sastra into this list. That is the book which Arya Nagarjuna Was translated by Kumarajive into Chinese language. Nagarjuna’s biography in Chinese mentions some of the books written by Nagarjuna: Upadesa sastra (Sloka 100,000), Buddha Marga Alankara and Maha matir upaya sastra ( with Slokas 5000), Mdhyamaka Sastra (sloka 500). Akutobhaya sastra (sloka 100,000)) Arya Nagarjuna As to Taranatha Nagarjuna has written 05 Books.Those are: Mulamadhyamaka Karika, Yukti Sataka, Sunyata saptati, Vigraha vyavartani, Vaidalya Prakarana. Bo-ston says Nagarjuna’s books are 06. Prajna Mula (Mulamadhyamaka Karika), Sunyata Saptati, Yukti Sataka, Vigraha Vyavartani, Vaidalya Sastra and Prakarana, Arya Nagarjuna Vyavahara siddhi. Apart from these volumes there are some more books are considered Nagarjuna’s Books. Those are: 1.Ratnavali 2.Catuhstava 3. Pratityasamutpada hridaya 4. Bava sankranti sastra 6. Prajna danda and 7.Suhurllekha. Kumarajiva translated some books to Arya Nagarjuna Chinese language and those books remain in that language only. Those books also ascribed to Nagarjuna. Those are: 1.Maha Prajnaparamita sastra 2. Dasabhumika sastra 3. Dvadasa mukha sastra. Apart from those books now only remaining in Chinese language some books which were the Nagarjuna’s books Arya Nagarjuna Ekasloka sastra, Astadasa sunyata sastra, Bodhisambara sastra, Bodhicitta nimitta rahita, Bodhi (sattva) caryavatara. Dharmadhatu stotra. As to Richerd H.Robinson, among these books it is difficult to decide what is the real work of Nagarjuna. But Robinson says what have named by Taranatha as the books of Nagarjuna deciding with the help of what contained in the Madhyamaka karika and those ` Arya Nagarjuna Books mentioned by Taranatha if can còmpare, then can decided those books are belong to Nagarjuna. Apart from those books Ratnavali, Catuhstava, Pratityasamutpada Hridaya and Bhava sankranti Sastra etc. from these 04 books Candrakirti has quoted some passages. Therefore those books also can be ascribed to Nagarjuna. By the time of 5th Century Suhurllekha Arya Nagarjuna Has been twice translated in to Chinese. Therefore that is also can be considered as a book of Nagarjuna. Mahayana Vimsaka work cannot decide belong to Nagarjuna. Lindtner, analysing the resemblance of the Nagarjuna’s thought catagorized the works of Nagarjuna and mentioned some books as primary books of Nagarjuna. Arya Nagarjuna Those are:1. Mula Madhyamaka Karika, 2.Sunyata saptati 3. Vigraha vyavartani 4. Vidalya Prakarana 5. Vyavahara siddhi 6. Yukti sastika 7. Catuhstava 8. Ratnavali 9. Pratityasamutpada Hridaya Karika. 10.Sutra samuccaya. 11. Bodhicitta vivarana 12. Suhurlleka 13. Bodhisambhara. Arya Nagarjuna Lindtner has decided this after the careful investigation of what is the Nagarjna’s philosophy? To what tradition Nagarjuna was belonged ? It seems that, to decide what are the works of Nagarjuna? Lies on the question of what kind of philosophy shall we ascribe to Nagarjuna? (Lindtner, C.1982. Nagarjuna. Studies in the Writings Arya Nagarjuna (Lindtner, C. 1982. Nagarjuna. Studies in the Writings and Philosophy of Nagarjuna. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas).