Korean War Chart
1950-1953
“The Forgotten War”
Causes
• Cold War
• Communist revolution in
China 1945-1949 (U.S.
supported Chiang Kai-shek
and Nationalists)
• Japan surrender (gives
northern Korea to Soviets,
southern Korea to
Americans)
• Only 500 US soldiers in
South Korea
Spark
• June 25, 1950
• North Korean army
crosses 38th parallel
into South Korea
Strategy
• United States
• United Nations
involvement
• 90% of ½ million troops
American
• South Korean
involvement (1/2
mill.)
• Amphibious invasion
• Surround North
Korean forces
• Heavy artillery
• Nuclear attack?
Strategy
• North Korea
• Communist
involvement (China
and USSR)
• Soviet weapons,
Soviet-trained military
• Quick, surprise attack
• Force of numbers
• Over 10 million troops
Important/Turning Point Battles
• Initial attack (1950)
• Pusan (1st U.S. victory)
• Inchon (Sep. 15, 1950) –
amphibious landing
• Seoul (1950)
• Pyongyang (1951 Chinese counter-offensive)
• Chosin Reservoir (1951) “Attacking in other
direction” (leave N. Korea)
• Pork Chop Hill (July 1953)
– flat by end of 6 days
• Operation Ripper (get back
to the 38th parallel)
• Stalemate
Heroes and Goats
• U.S./U.N.
• Douglas MacArthur
• Harry Truman
• Matthew Ridgway
• Syngman Rhee (1st
pres. of S. Korea)
• Commies
• Kim Il-Sung
• Zhou En-lai
• Mao Zedong
Costs and Lives
Lives
• U.S.
• 54,229 killed; 103, 248 wounded; 8142 missing;
3746 captured (169, 365 casualties)
• UN troops
• over 1 million casualties; 980,000 S. Korea
• China
• 392,600 (some estimates place at 900,000)
• N.Korea
• over 500,000 casualties
• 3-4 million Korean civilian casualties
Cost
Dollars
• U.S.
• Over $60 billion (defense budget at
beginning of war $12 billion)
• China
• $3 billion
Ammo
• U.S.
• 3.3 million tons ($20 billion)
Treaty…uh, non-treaty results
• June 23, 1951
• Soviet Union asks for cease-fire
• July 1953
• Armistice signed
• War never officially ended
• 2 Koreas (divided by 38th parallel)
• Draw
• Increased fear of communism
• Beginning of communist “witch hunts”
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Korean War Chart