Chapter 22
Returning to Normalcy
Mrs. Hauber
US History
Section 1: Postwar Reaction
Allied Intervention in Russia
Labor Strife
Urban Riots
Bomb Scares
First Red Scare
Women’s Suffrage
1. Allied Intervention in Russia
Alllied Intervention in Russia
March 1917—Czar Nicholas II was overthrown by
revolution in Russia
Alexander Kerensky—leader of provisional
government of Russia until it fell to the
Lenin—Bolshevick (Communist)
leader that overthrew Russia’s
Allied Intervention in Russia
Bolshevicks took Russia out of WWI
Many American troops stayed in Europe after
the armistice of 1918 to fight communism.
Allies aided Russia to fight against the
Communists in the “Great Russian Civil War”
of 1918-1920
George Creel created a fear in America
against the threat of communism
2. Labor Strife
The government’s truce with labor unions
was over
Worker’s now went on strike
Anxious to keep wartime benefits
Threatened by soaring prices
Union violence increased
 After many strikes failed, there was
a decline in unions in the 1920s
3. Urban Riots
Anti-black feelings grew
act of a mob that
hanged a person
without the right to do
“The Red Summer”—
summer of 1919 that
was marked by an
increase in racial
Urban Riots
There were over 25
race riots
Worst riot was in
Mitchell Palmer—
Attorney General who
feared communists
were everywhere.
Palmer raids
4. Bomb Scares
Mayor Ole Hanson—receives bomb in the
Senator Hardwick—received package and
maid had her hands blown off
Bomb went off on wall street killing 38 people
5. Mitchell Pursues Bolshevicks
In November of 1919, Mitchell had over 250
members of Union of Russian Workers
Ordered Raids on communist meetings
4000 thrown in jail
556 deported
6. Fear of Foreigners
Immigration Restriction League—every
immigrant must be able to read to be
Distinction between “new immigrants” and
“old immigrants”
Felt that by accepting immigrants, we were
committing “race suicide”
7. Immigration Laws
Immigration Act (1921)—set a limit on the
number of immigrants per year
National Origins Act (1929) --Reduced
quotas based on the natural origin of the
people of the US.
Favored Northern and western Europe
Barred all Chinese, Japanese, & other Asians
Canadians and Latin Americans were exempt
1. Warren G. Harding
Publisher of a newspaper
State Senator; US Senator
Chose “best minds” to help in the Presidency
“Ohio Gang”—Harding’s friends (cronies) that
used their official position for their own
2. Foreign Affairs
Harding was against League of Nations
Signed a separate treaty with Germany in
July of 1921.
Prevention of a naval arms race
3. Domestic Policies
Recession early on
Asked Congress for higher tariffs, lower
taxes, and less government spending.
Emergency Tariff Act (1921)—Raised the
rates on agicultural products and was
designed to put an end to the downward
trend of tariff rates
Fordney-McCumber Tariff—imposed the
highest tariff rates in US history
5. The War Debts
Many allied nations put pressure on the US to
scale back or cancel war debts. They felt:
Most of the money borrowed was spent in the US
War had been a common cause
It was unlikely they could pay it back anyway
(especially with the US’s increase in tariffs)
US came up with separate agreements with
each country
6. The Washington
1st successful disarmament conference
where three separate treaties emerged:
Five Powers Treaty—agreed to limit the number
of capital ships
Nine powers Treaty—Agreed to observe Open
Door Policy in China
Four Powers Treaty—Agreed to protect one
another’s possessions in the Pacific
8. Harding Scandals
Veterans Bureau Scandal—Charles Forbes
was responsible for the misappropriation of
$250 million veteran funds.
Sentenced to two years in prison
Teapot Dome Scandal—Albert Fall secretly
leased naval oil reserves to people in return
for “loans”.
Convicted of bribery and sentenced to 1 year in
7. Harding’s Death
Became aware of scandals
Died of a heart attack
However, it was rumored that he died of food
poisoning or suicide
Section 3: Keeping Cool with
President Coolidge
Election of 1924
Government Helps Business
Farm Problem
Election of 1928
1. President Coolidge
Governor of Massachusetts
“Silent Cal”
Admirer of American Business
Did not believe in government
interference (laissez-faire)
 Became President when Harding died
2. Election of 1924
Coolidge (R)
Davis (D)
LaFollette (Progressive)
Coolidge won by an
overwhelming majority
 His victory was clouded
by the death of his youngest
3. Economy under
 Prosperity ensued
 National Debt went
 Stock-market boom
 Farmers were the
4. Government Helps
 Free enterprise—freedom from
government intervention
 Regulatory Agencies should only help
 FTC, Federal Reserve Board, and Dept. of
Commerce promoted fair practices and
cooperations among companies
Gov’t Helps Business
 Monopolies were formed again
 Supreme Court ruled that they were not
restraining trade
5. The Farm Problem
 Farmers were no longer enjoying wartime
 The more they produced, the less they
 Higher tariffs were not enough
 Coolidge vetoed measures intended to
bring relief to the farmers
6. McNary-Haugen Bill
 Farmers would keep prices the same and
the government would buy the surplus
 Failed twice in Congress
 Passed he third time.
 However, Coolidge vetoed it.
7. Election of 1928
Coolidge chose not to run again
Herbert Hoover (R)
Smith (D)
Smith was a Catholic who favored the
repeal of Prohibition
 Hoover wins because of his humanitarian
Section 4: Life in the Jazz Age
New Products
Health and
Roaring Twenties
Roar of the
1. New Products
1900—very rare
1918—7 million
New highways and roads
Shopping Centers
First one in Kansas in 1922
New Products (continued)
KDKA—first station in Pittsburgh
Broadcast the Harding-Cox Returns
Invented by Edison
Blacks brought jazz
and blues north
Duke Ellington. Louis Armstrong, and
Bessie Smith
2. Health and Education
US spent more on
education than any
other countries put
3. “Roaring Twenties”
Speakeasies—illegal bars
Flappers—young women with short
hair and short skirts
Sporting Events
Babe Ruth
Boxing Fights
Charles Lindbergh—1st non-stop flight
from NY to Paris
4. Roar of the Factory
Frederick Taylor—Father of Scientific
Henry Ford—employed the use of the
assembly line
Electric conveyer belt
Model T
Car rolled off every