Unit -2
WESTERN HISTORY OF
IDEOLOGIES FOR SOCIAL CHANGE
Religo-Philosophical, Welfarism,Democracy
and
Human rights
Philosophy: It is an academic discipline that
seeks to understand the mysteries of existence
and reality. It tries to discover the nature of truth
and knowledge and to find the importance in life.
It also examines the relationship between
humanity and nature between the individual and
the society.
Ideology :originated in religious questions that
concern the nature and purpose of life and death
and the relationship of human to super-human
powers or a divine creator.
Social Change : It is generally influenced be
religious and secular ideologies
HISTORICAL STAGES
ANCIENT PERIOD
- UPTO 400s
MEDIEVAL PERIOD - 400s to 1600s
1. JUDEO-CHRISTIAN IDEOLOGIES
2. SECULAR HUMANISIM
3. PROTESTANTISM
MODERN PERIOD
- 1600s to 1950s
1.Rationalism
2.Welfarism
3.Liberalism and Democracy
4.Utilitarianism and Social Darwinism
5.Socialisim
6.Human Rights
In each stage we will study the
following
Historical Context of Origin and Development
Social Context
IDEALS,RATIONALE AND GOALS FOR SOCIAL CHANGE
Perception of People and Social Problems
Implications
ANCIENT PERIOD
Greek Ideologies
Historical Context of Origin and Development
5th Century BC – Greece was a collection of independent states
Social Context
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Greece had separate independent states
Agricultural and Horticultural society
Direct Democracy – Every man votes
Slavery System
Slaves and women could not participate in voting
ANCIENT PERIOD
IDEALS,RATIONALE AND GOALS FOR SOCIAL CHANGE
Nature was central, human beings were second,
GOD was third –Humans were more important than
GODS
Greek philosophers
Socrates said that success is not a short term affair
unless founded on logical truth and moral right.
Plato said that statesmen should rule rather than
politicians, the world consists of material objects
and abstract ideas (short lived pleasures)
Aristotle said that there is only one external world
that is the material world
ANCIENT PERIOD
MEDIEVAL PERIOD
1.JUDEO-CHRISTIAN IDEOLOGIES
Historical Context of Origin and Development
To about 1700 BC – Judaism existed before Greek philosophers
Christianity was a social movement in Judaism
Jesus wanted to reform Judaism not replace it and did not mention himself
as the founder of Christianity
Christianity was rejected by Jews and Romans
Paul a disciple of Jesus spreads Christianity ,Christianity becomes the official
religion later.
After the fall of Western Roman Empire Europe was divided into regional powers
The pope was had religious and political authority
Social Context
Monarchies
Feudalism an important feature
Feudal lords were powerful, they controlled the churches and gave them lands
Perception of people and Social Problems
Adam and Eve committed Original Sin
GOD sent his son Jesus to wash away our sins
One GOD and 3 persons Holy Trinity) –Father, son and the Holy Ghost/spirit
MEDIEVAL PERIOD
IDEALS,RATIONALE AND GOALS FOR SOCIAL CHANGE
JUDAISM-Hebrew Bible-Old Testament for Christians
TORAH(GODS revelation to MOSES)
-One GOD worship him alone
-Coming of Messiah
-Ten Commandments
-Rewards and punishment according to ones deeds
-Christianity retained the importance of the Hebrew Bible
-Jesus used the ten commandments for moral and ethical teachings
-Love of GOD and love of neighbours and enemies
-GOD made the church, administered by priests
-Priests Responsibility to offer Seven sacraments is very important
-JUDAISM and CHRISTIANITY gave greatest importance to CHARITY
Implications for social change
Judeo-Christian – development of western culture
Power of Pope (divine and final) in matters of political and social
Conflict between European rulers and the Pope
MEDIEVAL PERIOD
2.SECULAR HUMANISIM -Revival of Importance of Human Beings
Historical Context of Origin and Development
12th & 13th centuries – Trade increased - barter economy to money economy
Traders and merchants supported the kings
Feudal lords declined
Social Context
New class provided services (managers and clerks)
Rise of middle class
Foundation of Renaissance (began in Italy 1300 and spread all over Western
Europe)
Emphasis on science and humanism
Perception of people and Social Problems
Scholars and Artists rediscover ancient humanistic works
MEDIEVAL PERIOD
IDEALS,RATIONALE AND GOALS FOR SOCIAL CHANGE
Secular Humanism liberated humanity from religion
Question the church regarding social life
Replaced religion
Moral obligations are to be discharged voluntarily by
every person
Man is a part of nature
Implications
Ethical basis for civil society in the modern era
Let to secularism in politics which lead to separation of
religion from politics
MEDIEVAL PERIOD
3. Protestantism – Promotion of individualism and work
ethics
Historical Context of Origin and Development
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Influence of Renaissance and unscientific attitude of the catholic church was
challenged
16th century corruption in catholic church sparked a religious movement called
reformation
It lead to several protestant groups – new churches came
Social Context
Martin Luther – A leading reformer – work his service to GOD
People who do not work are sinners
Favoured the development of a rational bourgeois life
IDEALS,RATIONALE AND GOALS FOR SOCIAL CHANGE
Protestants rejected authority of Roman catholic church
Protestants turn to the bible as authority – Bible translated to english
Stressed faith in GOD
Implications
Pursuit of wealth, stripped of its religious and ethical meaning
Profit motive
MEDIEVAL PERIOD
MODERN PERIOD
1.Rationalism
Historical Context of Origin
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Philosophic outlook that arose in the 1600s,
Age of reason or enlightenment for humankind,
opposed to superstitious and ignorant ‘Dark Ages’
IDEALS, RATIONALE AND GOALS FOR SOCIAL CHANGE
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Shift away from religious sensibilities to scientific objectivity
Reasoning replaced religion as the source of knowledge
The 17th century philosophers in Europe emphasized division between
mind and matter
Philosophers focused the mind and left the inquiry about matter to
science. Values were separated from facts.
Implications
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19th century closed, modern science was firmly embedded
Scientific humanism rejects every method of inquiry other than
scientific
Western science had assumed a God-like supremacy which was to
endure throughout most of the 20th century
MODERN PERIOD
2. Welfarism
Historical Context of Origin and Development
England was leading among the Protestant countries
Begging and alms-giving were outlawed except for the “worthy” poor.
The Henrican Poor Law acknowledged that the state rather than the church or volunteers
must play some role in caring for the poor.
Scientists criticized that direct and religious charity was indiscriminate and not scientific.
England enacted the Elizabethan Poor Law in 1601
Perception of People and Social Problems
The Elizabethan Poor Law provided for helpless people whose needs were large and likely
to be prolonged – orphans, the handicapped, the chronically ill and the feeble aged
Perceived as sources of political trouble, failures of the system
Those who did not work were accused of sinfulness or immorality
INTERVENTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
Elizabethan Poor Law said that it is the duty of the parish to help the poor
Able bodied poor forced to work in work houses –minimum care was provided
Population increased more than food supplies
Malthus a liberal economist said that charity would make people lazy
1834- New poor law-government not responsible for employment
1930s –great depression-social welfare programmes throughout the world
MODERN PERIOD
3.Liberalism and Democracy
Historical Context of Origin and Development
Science replaced religion and ideology
Individual initiative and control
Production process from agriculture to Industrial
Peoples rule emerged, it limited the kings powers
A new social class emerged-bankers, traders, manufacturers
Socio-political changes –bourgeois revolution
American and French revolution
Racial Hatred –Nazi ruled Germany
Colonies in the world
IDEALS, RATIONALE AND GOALS FOR SOCIAL CHANGE
Adam Smith a classical economist said that supply and demand
will regulate not only prices of goods but also the incomes of
those who produce the goods
Government should not interfere in trade and provide social
benefits for heavy losers in the form of welfare
MEDIEVAL PERIOD
4.Utilitarianism and Social Darwinism
Historical Context of Origin and Development
Liberalist ideology and Industrial revolution made
European nationalism aggressive promoting international
trade and colonization in Asia and Africa
Machines made more goods
Raw materials came from colonies
IDEALS, RATIONALE AND GOALS FOR SOCIAL CHANGE
Adam Smith a classical economist said that supply and demand will
regulate not only prices of goods but also the incomes of those who
produce the goods
Government should not interfere in trade and provide social benefits
for heavy losers in the form of welfare
Survival of the fittest –SOCIAL DARWINISM –profitable people
survive , Worthy and Non-worthy
Kinship system changed-Monogamy by Polygamy
IMPLICATIONS
Individualism became essential for the economic growth
Pleasure the ultimate right of every person
USA-Equal opportunity for all
MODERN PERIOD
Racism against ethnic groups
5.Socialism
Historical Context of Origin and Development
Plato had told that that the ruling class own everything in common
During the French revolution the ideology emerged
Common ownership of economic resources by the direct producers or the workers
Perception of People and Social Problems
Karl Marx –father of socialism
Inequality of classes
Newer modes of production facilitated conflict between classes
IDEALS, RATIONALE AND GOALS FOR SOCIAL CHANGE
People questioned the capitalistic society
Workers all over the world unite
Private property was abolished
Class struggle
Birth of Trade Unions and Labour Unions
Karl Marx’s writings made an impact all over the world
Socialists founded new parties called communist parties
Rise of Communist countries,Russia,China
INTERVENTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
Marxist ideologies contributed to:
Industrialization, price stability,
women's labour forces, full employment,
advance of science and technology,
improved eductaion,health and welfare systems,
child care facilities
MODERN PERIOD
6.Human Rights
Historical Context of Origin and Development
Increased enmity among European nations led to World War-I
in 1914 after the war the economy of the winner and looser
collapse
US remained a rich country because of its trade
European countries borrowed from US
European industries came to a standstill
Rise of military dictatorship-Italy, Germany, Spain
Aggressive and expansionist policies led to World War-II
More economic losses compelled them to end colonization
This time too US emerged as a super power
After the war in 1945 the united nations was set up
United nations main aim was to prevent war in future
It gave the hope for global peace
Perception of People and Social Problems
UN report states that the denial of human rights is not
only an individual and personal tragedy but also creates
conditions of social and political unrest, sowing the
seeds of violence and the conflict within and between
societies and nations
MODERN PERIOD
IDEALS, RATIONALE AND GOALS FOR SOCIAL CHANGE
Judeo-Christian ideology influences the western idea of
revolutions and human rights
Human rights are those rights that are inherent in pure
nature and without which, we cannot live as human beings
Declaration of Human Rights
All international communities must abide by it
1948—30 articles-drew together ideas shared by many
political, cultural, and religious traditions to set out the
treatment that everyone in the world would accept as a
member of the human family
1966-Covenants (agreements)
International covenant on
Economic,social,cultural,civil,political rights
Liberal ideology is born. freedom from
torture,slavery,forced labour,freedom of
movement,thought,opinion,conscience,religion……..
INTERVENTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
Individualistic
Liberal humanism
MODERN PERIOD