Third Edition
ANTHONY GIDDENS ● MITCHELL DUNEIER ● RICHARD APPELBAUM ● DEBORA CARR
Slides created by Shannon Anderson, Roanoke College
Chapter 13: Politics and Economic Life
1
Important topics
•
•
•
•
•
•
The emergence of the nation-state
Democratic systems of government
Terrorism
Social functions of work
Modern economies
The changing economy
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
2
Central terms
• Government
• Politics
• Economy
• In actuality, these three are inextricably linked.
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
3
Power and authority
•
•
Power is the ability to impose one’s beliefs
or interests upon others, even in the face of
resistance.
Authority is the legitimate use of power.
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
4
Characteristics of a state
•
•
•
•
Organized government
Territory
Legal system
Military force
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
5
Nation-state
• Modern form of state.
• Has similar characteristics as a state, but also a
shared sense of peoplehood.
• Nation-states are often associated with
nationalism.
• Nation-states are characterized by legal
sovereignty and citizenship.
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
6
Nationalism
• Quasi-religious identification with and loyalty
to the nation
• Not always defined by shared territory, as in
religious nationalism
• Sometimes made up of smaller groups within a
nation-state—local nationalisms
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
7
Citizenship
• All rights are not granted equally or fully to all
citizens
– Civil rights
– Political rights
– Social rights
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
8
Map 13.1 Freedom in Global Perspective
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
What is democracy?
• Democracy means rule by the people.
• Types:
– Participatory democracy
– Liberal democracy
– Constitutional monarchy
• Most nation-states are now republican,
meaning there is no king or queen.
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
10
Communism vs. democracy
• In the twentieth century, an ideological battle
was waged between communism and
democracy.
• Communism is a system of one-party rule.
– Control is of both the political and economic
systems.
• In 1989 a series of democratic revolutions
swept communist regimes worldwide.
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
11
Why the rise of democracy?
1. Democracy aligns well with capitalism, and
capitalism has been more successful than
communism economically.
2. Globalization has led to an imperative for
knowledge, which is more available under
democracy.
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
12
Why the rise of democracy?
3. With increasing technologies and the spread
of knowledge, governmental control
declines.
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
13
Democracy in the U.S.
• The two-party system leads to a movement
toward the middle.
• By 2010, though, polarization between parties
was very high and party affiliation continued to
decline.
• Voting has declined from the 1960s forward, with
the exception of 2008.
• Interest groups play an important role.
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
14
Why is voter participation low?
• No compulsory registration or voting
• Registration required early, leaving many
citizens disqualified on Election Day
• Two-party system leaves many voters
disaffected
• Full slate of local, state, and national elections
can be overwhelming
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
15
Theories of democracy
•
•
•
•
Democratic elitism
Pluralist theory
Power elite
“Military-industrial complex”
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
16
Figure 13.1 Military spending in countries that spent at
least $5 billion a year on the military, 2008
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Political identification
For each statement, please indicate how much you agree or disagree on a scale of 0 to 10, with 10 meaning you completely agree and
0 meaning you completely disagree, and 5 meaning you aren’t sure whether you agree or disagree.
Your score ( 0– 10)
1. Government has a responsibility to provide fi nancial support for the
poor, the sick, and the elderly.
2. Government must step in to protect the national economy when the
market fails.
3. Religious faith should focus more on promoting tolerance, social justice,
and peace in society and less on opposing abortion or gay rights.
4. Cultural institutions, the arts, and public broadcasting play an important
role in our society and should receive government support.
5. African Americans and other minority groups still lack the same
opportunities as whites in this country.
6. Immigrants today are a burden on our country because they take our
jobs and abuse government benefits.
7. The federal government should guarantee affordable health coverage
for every American.
8. The gap between rich and poor should be reduced even if it means
higher taxes for the wealthy.
9. Military force is the most effective way to combat terrorism and make
America safe.
10. America must play a leading role in addressing climate change by
reducing our own greenhouse gas emissions and complying with
international agreements on global warning.
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
18
Political identification
The following chart shows some of the ways that Democrats, Independents, and Republicans differ in their views. These responses are
based on a national random sample survey of 1,400 Americans age 18 and older (Halpin and Agne 2009). How might you explain these
differences? Can you conclude that there is a causal relationship, such as “being a Republican causes one to oppose national health
care”? Or might the relationship be spurious, explained by some other social or demographic factor?
% who indicated agreement level of 6 or higher
Democrat
1. Government has a responsibility to provide financial support for the poor, the
sick, and the elderly.
Independent
Republican
84
65
51
75
51
43
3. Religious faith should focus more on promoting tolerance, social justice, and
peace in society and less on opposing abortion or gay rights.
71
63
38
4. Cultural institutions, the arts, and public broadcasting play an important role in
our society and should receive government support.
65
48
33
5. African Americans and other minority groups still lack the same opportunities as
whites in this country.
60
46
36
6. Immigrants today are a burden on our country because they take our jobs and
abuse government benefits.
36
36
53
7. The federal government should guarantee affordable health coverage for every
American.
86
61
39
8. The gap between rich and poor should be reduced even if it means higher taxes
for the wealthy.
80
57
39
49
46
74
82
67
48
2. Government must step in to protect the national economy when the market fails.
9. Military force is the most effective way to combat terrorism and make safe.
10. must play a leading role in addressing climate change by reducing our own
greenhouse gas emissions and complying
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Source: Halpin and Agne 2009.
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
19
Terrorism
• Terrorism is the use of violent attacks on
civilians to create a climate of fear in the aim
of influencing policy.
• Two basic types:
– Old-style terrorism: local aims
– New-style terrorism: global aims
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
20
Work and economic life
• The economy shapes much of social life.
• Basic concepts:
– Work
– Occupation
– Technology
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
21
The importance of work
• Work plays a role, not only in the economy,
but also in an individual’s own life.
• Paid and unpaid work are important in
providing meaning to life.
– Formal economy
– Informal economy
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
22
Work in modern societies
• Highly complex division of labor (DOL) 
economic interdependence
• Industrial work
• Alienation
• Industrial conflict
– Strikes
– Unions
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
23
Capitalist economies
• Economic system based on private ownership
and free markets
• Most economies in modern societies are now
capitalistic.
– Even true of economies in technically
communist states
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
24
Modern corporations
• Past 100 years have seen corporate growth and
the concentration of corporate capital.
– 200 largest U.S. financial firms account for over
50 percent of financial activity
– We have a situation of oligopoly more than
monopoly.
• High-level mergers and acquisitions further
this trend of consolidation.
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
25
Global business
• Transnational corporations operate across many
countries and now constitute more than 50 percent
of the world economy
• The U.S. share of top transnationals is declining.
• The rise of transnational business is intimately
related to recent improvements in technology,
especially transportation and communication.
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
26
Figure 13.3 Where Does Your Car Come From?
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Changes in the economy
• Deskilling of workers
• Decline in manual labor and manufacturing
work
• Rise in white-collar and service work
• Shift to knowledge economy
• Increase in part-time work
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
28
Figure 13.4 The Changing Occupational Structure
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
This concludes the Lecture
PowerPoint Presentation for
Chapter 13: Politics and Economic Life
For more learning resources, please visit our online StudySpace at:
http://www.wwnorton.com/college/soc/essentials-of-sociology13/
W. W. Norton & Company
Independent and Employee-Owned
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
30
Clicker Questions
1. According to C. Wright Mills, the power elite is composed of
a. the heads of the nation’s biggest transnational corporations.
b. the top leadership of the military, the government, and
business.
c. the political leaders of the free world.
d. the wealthiest families around the globe.
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
31
Clicker Questions
2. You walk into class ten minutes late and find your classmate
Sunghoon giving a presentation on politics and economic life. He
discusses the need for private ownership of the means of production;
profit as incentive; free competition for markets to sell goods,
acquire cheap materials, and utilize cheap labor; and expansion and
investment to accumulate capital. Based on these key points, what is
Sunghoon giving his presentation on?
a. the essential features of capitalism
b. the essential features of socialism
c. the reasons why labor unions form
d. the reasons why Republicans have dominated public office since the
1970s
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
32
Clicker Questions
3. According to Marx, why does worker alienation increase under
capitalism?
a. Workers are paid less than before.
b. Work is physically harder and more complex.
c. Workers have little or no control over the creation and sale of
the goods they produce.
d. Increasing numbers of the workers are employed by
transnational corporations.
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
33
Clicker Questions
4. What is the informal economy?
a. It refers to domestic labor within the home.
b. It refers to transactions outside the sphere of regular
employment, sometimes involving the exchange of cash for
services provided, but also often involving the direct exchange
of goods and services.
c. It refers to transactions between small businesses.
d. It refers to the economy in traditional societies.
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
34
Clicker Questions
5. What is terrorism?
a. groups of radical Muslims who wish to eliminate Western
culture through any means, including violence.
b. attacks on civilians designed to persuade a government to alter
its policies or to damage its standing in the world
c. any network of individuals that conspires to undermine the
authority of a government
d. attacks on civilian or military targets designed to create chaos
in specific areas, and thus weaken the power of a government
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
35
Clicker Questions
6. What is the definition of a nation-state?
a. a government that lays claim to specific territories, legitimates
its authority by means of a legal system and supports its rule
by the control of armed forces
b. a government that issues passports, establishes customs and
tariffs and sets up border posts
c. a government that is able to institute a tax system that is seen
as legitimate by most of the population
d. a government that gains the recognition of other governments
as the sole legitimate ruler of a given territory
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
36
Clicker Questions
7. What are the three rights associated with the growth of
citizenship?
a. civil, political, and social rights
b. civil, voting, and welfare rights
c. civil, social, and economic rights
d. civil, human, and animal rights
© 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.
37
Art Presentation Slides
Chapter 13
Politics and Economic Life
Anthony Giddens
Mitchell Duneier
Richard P. Appelbaum
Deborah Carr
Chapter Opener
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Map 13.1 Freedom in Global Perspective
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
A U.S. Border Patrol agent drives along the wall that
Separates Nogales, Arizona, from Nogales, Sonora,
Mexico, on the U.S. and Mexican border.
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
The Barack Obama presidential campaign revolutionized
electoral politics with its use of the Internet for fundraising
and organizing.
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Various health care advertisements from interest
groups lobbying Congress.
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
One of the most powerful women in United States politics,
Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi (D-Cal).
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Figure 13.1 Military spending in countries that spent at
least $5 billion a year on the military, 2008
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
An example of an old- style terrorist movement, these
Basque Nationalists are mostly concerned with territorial
control and the formation of states.
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Factory workers at the Ford Motor Company assemble
a Model T automobile.
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Figure 13.2 Number of Work Stoppages Involving
1,000 Workers or More, 1947–2004
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Writers Guild of America members picket outside
Paramount Studios in Los Angeles during their 2008
labor strike.
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of
their load in truck-size containers.
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Figure 13.3 Where Does Your Car Come From?
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Figure 13.4 The Changing Occupational Structure
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Google headquarters. Knowledge-based companies, such
as Google, account for more than half of the business output
in developed countries.
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Globalization and Everyday Life
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
W. W. Norton & Company
Independent and Employee-Owned
This concludes the Art Presentation Slides
Slide Set for Chapter 13
Essentials Of Sociology
THIRD EDITION
by
Anthony Giddens
Mitchell Duneier
Richard P. Appelbaum
Deborah Carr