THE GREAT WEST AND THE
AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
CHAPTER 26
1865-1896
I. THE CLASH OF CULTURES ON THE PLAINS
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After Civil War frontier in America steadily
marched westward
On Great Plains relatively few white settlers
right after Civil War, habitat of Indian,
buffalo
1860 most Native Americans confined to
this region
Migration and conflict not foreign to tribes,
many had been pushed westward by white
settlement and clashed with other tribes
White soldiers and settlers in the decades
before the Civil War accelerated a fateful
cycle of disease, environmental destruction
and settlement that undermined
foundations of Native American culture
Inevitable clash between acquisitive,
industrial civilization and Native American
culture
By 1890 entire region populated by
American settlers
I. CLASH OF CULTURES ON THE PLAINS
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American policy since the 1830’s had been
resettlement and confinement of Native
Americans
1850’s beginning of reservation system,
established boundaries for Indian and white
settlement
Whites misunderstood basic structure of
Indian culture in these agreements
1860’s intensification of policy of confinement,
herded Indians into smaller reservations
Indians received promises from federal
government for food, clothing and supplies,
run by Indian agents that were often corrupt
Decade after Civil War saw increase of warfare
on Plains
Army troops met formidable resistance by
Native Americans
20% of U.S. soldiers were African American
(buffalo soldiers)
II. RECEDING NATIVE POPULATION
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1864- Sand Creek, CO U.S troops
attack Indian camp, kill 400
1866- Sioux ambush US Calvary
in MT, killing all; one of the few
Indian victories (whites abandon
region temporarily)
1868- Ft. Laramie Agreement
guarantees new reservation to
Sioux
1874- gold discovered in Black
Hills of North Dakota, white
settlers swarm to region that was
part of Sioux land and Indians
took to the warpath
1876- Gen. George Custer attacks
Indian force on Little Bighorn
River (MT), superior Indian force
wipes out all of Custer’s troops
II. RECEDING NATIVE POPULATION
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1877- US authorities try to heard Nez
Perce of Idaho onto reservations, pursue
then for 3 months and send to reservation
in KS
1880’s Apache of Arizona one of the last
tribes to be subdued by US troops
Indian policy shattered spirit, ghettoized
Indians on reservations, placed them on
marginal lands
Became wards of the government, easier
to feed than fight
RR’s instrumental in defeat; brought
people (soldiers, farmers, settlers), white
disease and alcohol contributed
Destruction of buffalo that had provided
sustenance to Plains culture was also a
factor
III. THE END OF THE TRAIL
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1880’s national conscience turned to plight
of NA’s
Helen Hunt Jackson A Century of Dishonor
(1881) recorded ruthless government dealing
with Indians
Some Americans sympathized with Indians,
some wanted policy of forced containment,
neither side showed much respect for Indian
culture and wanted Indians to assimilate
into American culture (boarding schools,
Carlisle Indian School)
Ghost Dance cult of 1890 (centered on Sioux
reservation in the Dakota Territory)
Religious revival to banish white settlers
and bring back the buffalo (Ghost Dance)
Grew in popularity, U.S. government
became concerned
Wounded Knee Indian Reservation, soldiers
fired into a group protesting death of Sitting
Bull, 100 men, women, children killed
End of Native American resistance
III. END OF THE TRAIL
1887 Dawes Severalty Act
dissolved tribes as legal entities,
wiped out tribal ownership of land,
provided families 160 acres of land,
citizenship in 25 years
 Reservation land not allotted was
sold to settlers, proceeds used for
education of tribes
 Tried to make farmers out of
Indians, ignored tradition of
tribally held lands
 Forced assimilation was Indian
policy for 50 years
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IV. MINING BOOM :FROM DISHPAN TO ORE BREAKER
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After Civil War millions of acres of land
permanently altered by humans
Ming first great boom (three phases)
A. Discovery
B. People pour into area
C. Communities grew, others saw opportunity supply
miners
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Gold and silver discoveries across West (CA, CO,
ID, MT, NV) brought miners, settlers
Boomtowns sprang up where lynch law and
vigilante justice reigned
Once surface gold was mined, big industry moved
in
Big business entered mining 1870’s
Capital used to buy equipment, hire crews of
immigrant labor
Mining companies caused extensive
environmental damage
Federal government supported large mining
operations- provided inexpensive land, approved
patents, provided RR land to move out ore
Mining boom helped fuel nations industrial
growth, injected silver issue into American
politics, caused conflict with Native Americans
V. BEEF BONANZAS AND THE LONG DRIVE
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Texas plains great for raising of beef, no
way to profitably get them to market
Issue solved by building of RR’s, cattle could
be shipped to stockyards of KC and Chicago
“Beef barons”, Swift, Armor; and a highly
industrialized meatpacking industry
developed
Products could be processed and shipped on
refrigerated car to eastern urban centers
1866-1888 ‘Long Drive”, “cow towns” sprang
up
Age of the cowboy
End of “open range” ranching mid 1880’s
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Invention of barbed wire
Supply of beef exceeded demand
Extreme winters, droughts (1886-1887)
Ranchers used hay to feed cattle
Farmers began to settle on open range,
brought by railroads
VI. THE FARMERS’ FRONTIER
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Homestead Act 1862 allowed settlers to acquire
160 ac. of land by living on it for 5 years, paying
nominal fee
Land divided along section, township lines set out in
Northwest Ordinance
Public land given away to fill it up, not for revenue,
provide stimulus to family farm
Many purchased land from RR, states and land
companies
Land speculators took advantage of system to grab
up best land
RR’s induced immigrants with cheap land
Higher wheat prices, iron plows made marginal land
more attractive
160 acres inadequate on arid Great Plains
Innovations in farming, new types of grain made
region profitable for agriculture
Drought persistent problem, farming techniques led
to “Dust Bowl” of the 1930’s
Federal government financed huge irrigation
projects to allow for agriculture in region; had more
to do with shaping of west than settlers, miners,
cowboys
VII. FAR WEST COMES OF AGE AND THE FADING FRONTIER
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Far West growth in population from 1870-1890
Republican Congress gathered more Republican votes during
period with admission of states
1889 Oklahoma open to white settlers, no longer “permanent”
Indian reservation
1890 superintendant of the census declared frontier “closed”
1893 Fredrick Jackson Turner’s “The Significance of the
Frontier on American History” published
Americans disturbed to find free land gone
1872-1890- Government began to set aside land for national
parks (Sequoia, Yellowstone, Yosemite)
VIII. THE FADING FRONTIER
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Frontier seen as symbol of opportunity, could always
start over
Land was many settlers most profitable crop
Frontier acted as a safety valve for displaced; you
could always move west
Did not really happen, too expensive to get into
farming, possibility of moving west kept industrial
wages higher (maybe)
Settling Trans-Mississippi West distinct chapter in
American history
Collision of Anglo, Indian, Mexican cultures where
Anglo’s established dominance
Scale and severity of environment had unique
challenges that were met by massive government
action (RR’s, irrigation, Homestead Act) that played a
role in economic and social development
IX. THE FARM BECOMES A FACTORY
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Situation of American farmers changing
High process for specialized cash crops provided profits to buy
manufactured goods
Large scale farmers became business people, part of the new
industrial order
Tied into RR’s, banks, manufacturing
Costly equipment, lack of business sense by many farmers led
to banks, RR’s and global marketplace becoming scapegoats
Mechanization and expense took many farmers off lands
American agriculture became butcher, breadbasket of the
world
X. DEFLATION DOOMS THE DEBTOR
One crop economy good as long as prices high
 Prices were determined on world market (which
also experienced mechanization)
 Low process, deflated currency, static money
supply (not enough dollars to go around) chief
concerns of farmers
 Many operated year after year at a loss
 Vicious cycle: machines increased output, supply
lowered price, had more debt
 High rates of interest from banks ruined many
farmers
 By 1880 ¼ of all farms operated by tenants,
industrial feudalism
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Declining Farm Prices 1865-1910
XI. UNHAPPY FARMERS
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Nature conspired against farmersgrasshoppers, floods, drought
In the South the boll weevil wreaked
havoc on the cotton crop in the 1890’s
Government over assessed their land for
taxes
Protective tariffs keep prices high on the
international market, also had to buy
high priced (tariff protected) goods at
home
Corporations that supplied farm
equipment, seed, fertilizer controlled
prices
Grain storage operators and RR’s
charged high fees
1890- ½ of population farmers but they
had nobody to organize them (by nature
individualistic and independent)
XII. THE FARMERS TAKE THEIR STAND
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1867- The National Grange of the
Patrons of Husbandry (Grange)
founded
Enhance isolated lives of farmers,
provide social, fraternal, educational
activities
1875- 800,000 members mostly in
Midwest and South
Began to concern themselves with
collective plight of farmers
Established cooperatively owned
stores, grain elevators and
warehouses
Entered politics to control grain,
freight prices, had biggest success in
Upper Midwest
Many “Granger” laws were struck
down by the Supreme Court (Wabash
vs. Illinois) and their influence faded
XIII. PRELUDE TO POPULISM
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Late 1870’s Farmers’ Alliances established in Texas
Grassroots movement
By 1890 over 1 million members
Organized to break control of RR’s through cooperative buying and
selling
Ignored plight of tenant farmers, excluded blacks
Racial division kept farmers from working together
Blacks formed Colored Farmers’ National Alliance
By 1890’s Farmers Alliances prelude to Populist Party
Farmers organized to attack money trust of Wall Street
Wanted nationalization of banks, RR’s, telephone, telegraph and
called for graduated income tax
Biggest issue was coinage of silver, to create money flow and make
debt easier to pay
Party wanted to relive farmers problems, unite farmers and urban
workers
1892 election won several congressional seats
Racial division kept them apart in the South, more popular in the
West
XIV. COXEY’S ARMY AND THE PULLMAN STRIKE
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Panic 1893 strengthened Populist position’
Armies of unemployed began marching to protest plight
1894- most famous Jacob Coxey and followers, marched on Washington to
demand federal works program to ease unemployment
Violent strikes, labor protest
Pullman Strike in Chicago
Eugene V. Debs, labor leader, organized strike to protest wage cuts and no
living cuts in company town
Paralyzed rail traffic across nation
Cleveland sends out federal troops (justification to keep mail moving),
crushed strike and sent Debs to prison
Debs sent to prison because he ignored court injunction to stop strike, first
time this tactic used
Seen by labor as proof of government, business, court alliance
Populist Party Cartoon 1892
XV. GOLDEN MCKINLEY AND SILVER BRYAN
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1896 farmers and labor wanted
relief, conservatives feared upheaval
Monetary policy major issue of
election of 1896
William McKinley backed by Mark
Hanna was nominee of Republican
Party
Republican platform favored big
business, hard money policies,
protective tariff and the gold
standard
Democrats were divided at
convention until Nebraskan William
Jennings Bryan gave his “Cross of
Gold” speech that brought him the
nomination
Platform demanded unlimited
coinage of silver at 32:1 creating
XVI. CLASS CONFLICT: PLOW HOLDERS VS. BONDHOLDERS
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Populists endorsed Bryan, Democratic party took over agrarian
politics
Bryan traveled around country preaching free silver
Caused panic for Republican “gold bugs”, Hanna used slush fund
to push McKinley
Republican business people used fear of unemployment and
economic hard times to win support
Huge voter turnout, McKinley won election
New era in American politics, ascendancy of urban, middle class
voter, Republican grip on White House until FDR, diminishing
voter turnout, rise of new political issues- industrial regulation
and welfare of labor
Why Did Populism Decline?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The economy experienced
rapid change.
The era of small
producers and
farmers was fading away.
Race divided the Populist
Party,
especially in the South.
The Populists were not
able to break
existing party loyalties.
Most of their agenda was
co-opted by
the Democratic Party.
XVII. Republican Stand-pattisim Enthroned
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McKinley as president – business
given free reign, trusts allowed to
develop, tariffs high (46.5%)
Prosperity returned, farm prices
rose, all credit given to Republicans
Money issue faded away- new gold
deposits found around the world,
new technology allowed for
extraction of gold
Caused more gold on market,
increased supply and inflated value
of currency redeemed in gold
Gold Standard Act of 1900
allowed paper currency to be
redeemed freely in gold, victory for
conservatives
EMPIRE AND EXPANSION
1890-1909
Chapter 27
I. AMERICA TURNS OUTWARD
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Immediately following Civil War country more
concerned with Reconstruction, industrialization
By turn of century America began to look outward
Competition with other nations in scramble for
empire (Germany, Russia, Britain, Japan)
This shift conflicted with American anti—colonial
traditions
I. AMERICA TURNS OUTWARD
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a.
b.
c.
o
United States had surplus of goods to sellmanufactured items, farm products
Advances in transportation, communication
quickened pace of commerce
Belief in national superiority
Belief in Social Darwinism
Tradition of “Manifest Destiny”
Frontier had been seen as “safety valve” for
discontent, expansion became way to get rid
of these feelings
All these ideas used to justify imperialism
Alfred T. Mahan during 1890’s urged
American leaders to:
Build up navy
Acquire foreign bases for supplies, fuel
Build the Panama Canal
Idea that control of the sea was key to
world dominance
I. AMERICA TURNS OUTWARD
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“Big Sister” policy aligned Latin
American nations with US into opening
new markets
1899 first Pan American Conference
1880’s- 1890’s new American
international aggression, showed
willingness of Americans to risk war and
militaristic mood of Americans
Issues with Germans over Pacific
Islands
Hostilities with Chile and Canada
Issues with British resurfaced, British
in no mood for war with US because of
other issues, developed closer ties with
Americans
Cleveland invoked idea of Monroe
Doctrine to keep European powers from
interfering
II. SPURNING THE HAWAIIAN PEAR
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1820 first American missionaries come to Hawaii, want to
win converts to Christianity and the “American” way
Hawaii becomes center for sugar production, idea of
extension of America
1840’s other countries warned to stay out of Hawaii’s
affairs
1887- Americans sign treaty guaranteeing access to naval
base rights in Pearl Harbor, islands needed as a
refueling/resupply for American shipping across the Pacific
American sugar growers import Asian labor to work in
sugar fields, outnumber native Hawaiians
1890’s economic crisis-high tariff made sugar prices too
high
New queen took rights away from planters
1893 planters overthrow Queen Liliuokalani
U.S. Marines help rebels
Sanford Dole, leader of new government , asks U.S. to
annex Hawaii, lower tariffs on sugar
President Cleveland refused to sign agreement, apologized
for American conduct
1897 California businessmen had close ties with planters
Fear that Japanese would take over Hawaii
Pressured President McKinley to annex Hawaii (1898)
III. CUBANS RISE IN REVOLT
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1890’s Spanish empire weak, small
Included Cuba, Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico
American businessmen invested ($50 m) in
sugarcane industry in Cuba, wanted stability
Sugar industry backbone of Cuban industry,
high tariffs threatened industry
Cuban leader Jose Marti started war for
independence, Spanish soldiers brutally put it
down, place Cubans in concentration camps
Americans favored Cubans- fight for freedom,
Spanish tactics gained sympathy
Businessmen worried about economic interest
and wanted rebellion to end ($100 million in
trade)
Journalists heightened dislike for Spanish
Yellow Journalism heightened American
jingoism
President McKinley warns Spanish to establish
peace, ordered battleship Maine to Havana
harbor to protect American citizens
III. CUBANS RISE IN REVOLT
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Feb. 1898 Maine mysteriously blows up in Havana
Harbor
Final straw for Americans
Newspapers inflame war fever
McKinley does not want war, public and election
concerns push him into it
April 1898 Congress approves war and passes Teller
Amendment that US would not annex Cuba once
Spain was defeated
US Navy blockades weaker Spanish in Santiago
harbor
Troops poorly trained, poor weapons, not prepared for
tropical climate (equipped for fighting Indians on the
Great Plains)
Cavalry unit (Rough Riders) led by future President
Theodore Roosevelt along with African American
Calvary units took San Juan Hill
Two days later Americans defeat Spanish navy
Within weeks US controlled Puerto Rico as well
December 1898 Treaty of Paris ends war
Disease(typhoid, dysentery, malaria) more deadly
than Spanish bullets
IV. WAR IN THE PHILIPPINES
Assistant Sec. of the Navy
Theodore Roosevelt orders
Adm. George Dewey to sail to
Philippines
 May 1898 American ships
surprise Spanish navy in
Manila Bay, destroy fleet
 Guerillas led by Emilio
Aguinaldo help US defeat
Spanish army
 August 1898 Spanish troops
surrender to the United States
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V. AMERICA’S COURSE (CURSE) OF EMPIRE
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What to do with new empire?
Treaty of Paris gave U.S. control of Cuba, Guam,
Puerto Rico
U.S. paid $20 million for Philippines
Philippines were biggest problem- ethnically
diverse, but did not want islands to fall into hands
of Germany, Japan, different culture, language and
governmental institutions
American duty to “civilize” inferior people
Profits for American investors
Questions of national identity- how would these
new territories be assimilated into America (before
all territorial acquisition eventually became states)
Anti-Imperialistic League argued against
expansion (cost, questioned consent of governed)
Had many prominent members Mark Twain,
Andrew Carnegie, William Jennings Bryan among
the leaders
1898- Treaty approved by Senate, America gains
stature in the world
VI. PERPLEXITIES IN CUBA AND PUERTO RICO
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Did Constitution follow flag? Did American laws apply to newly acquired
possessions?
Puerto Rico
1900 - Foraker Act.
PR became an “unincorporated territory.”
Citizens of PR, not of the US.
Import duties on PR goods (made money for US off their work)
1901-1903 Insular Cases.
Constitutional rights were not automatically extended to territorial
possessions.
Congress had the power to decide these rights.
Import duties laid down by the Foraker Act were legal
1917 – Jones Act.
Gave full territorial status to PR.
Removed tariff duties on PR goods coming into the US.
PRs elected their own legislators & governor to enforce
local laws.
PRs could NOT vote in US presidential elections.
A resident commissioner was sent to Washington to vote for PR in the House.
VI. PERPLEXITIES IN CUBA AND PUERTO RICO
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a)
b)
c)
d)
US improved finance, education, government and
public health in Cuba
Wiped out yellow fever
US withdrew form Cuba 1902; to keep Cuba in sphere
of US influence they included Platt Amendment in
their constitution
Platt Amendment (1903)
Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with
foreign powers that would endanger its
independence.
The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if
necessary to maintain an efficient, independent
govt.
Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for
naval and coaling station.
Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt.
VII. LITTLE BROWN BROTHERS IN THE PHILIPPINES
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Aguinaldo thought the U.S. was an ally and Philippines
would become independent
U.S. decided to keep Philippines
Aguinaldo organized insurrection, relied on guerilla
warfare
American military used extraordinary measures to put
down insurrection
Put Filipino citizens in concentration camps
Spring 1901 captured Aguinaldo
Insurrection did not end, but lowered the morale of
guerillas
5,000 Americans and 200,000 Filipinos died
$400 million spent fighting in Philippines
1901 William Howard Taft governor, censors press,
jails insurgents
Extended limited self rule, ordered construction of
roads, schools, attempt to assimilate and civilize
Filipinos
1916 Congress passes Jones Act allows for Philippine
independence
1946 achieve independence
VII. HINGING IN THE OPEN DOOR IN CHINA
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By 1899 European (Britain, Germany,
France , Russia) countries divided
China into “spheres of influence”
In each zone the countries had
exclusive access to ports and markets
Japan expanded regional influence into
China, Korea
U.S. trade limited in China
Feared tariff barriers
1899 US Sec. of State John Hay
dispatches Open Door note
Did not want colonies, just free trade
and equal access
Wants other countries to respect
Chinese rights and open economic
competition
VII. HINGING IN THE OPEN DOOR IN CHINA
Chinese criticized Western
culture and influence
 May 1900 Chinese antiimperialist secret society“Boxers” took over foreign
diplomat district in Beijing to
expel foreign powers
 Multinational force (Japanese,
European, American) forces put
down Boxer Rebellion
 After rebellion European
powers mistreated rebels,
ordered Chinese government to
pay for damages
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VIII.
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ELECTION OF 1900 AND THE RISE OF TR
Military victory and economic
prosperity led McKinley to reelection against William Jennings
Bryan
VP was “war hero” Teddy Roosevelt
1901 McKinley assassinated by
anarchist in Buffalo, NY; Roosevelt
becomes youngest president (42)
Roosevelt supported aggressive
American posture in international
affairs
He wanted to lead boldly, felt
president could take any action in
the public interest not specifically
forbidden by the Constitution
IX. BUILDING THE PANAMA CANAL
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America looked to isthmus of Panama to build a canal
to protect naval superiority, make easier defense of
newly acquired possessions in the Caribbean and
Pacific
Legal obstacles –Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (could not
secure exclusive control over region to build canal)
Took care of problem with Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
Late 1800’s French company started building canal
1903 U.S. purchased French claim $40 m
Needed consent of Columbian government to build
canal, U.S. did not want to pay their price
U.S. secretly supported independence movement in
Panama, sent warships to region
Panama granted independence and gives U.S. control
over canal zone
Justified for purposes of national defense
35,000 workers used to build canal-5,000 died
Opened in 1914
Cut 8,000 miles from ocean trip around North and
South America
X. BIG STICK DIPLOMACY
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U.S policy towards Latin America depended
on strong military
U.S. saw this as moral obligation
Elite and Industry needed to accept challenge
of international leadership
Latin American countries could not pay debts
to European countries
1904- Roosevelt issues Roosevelt Corollary
U.S would assume police power over
countries in Latin America in cases of
“chronic wrongdoing”, instead of European
powers
Reasserted Monroe Doctrine keeping Western
Hemisphere free of European intervention
Turned Caribbean into “Yankee Lake”
Latin American countries thought it was a
way to control region through shield of
protection, affected relations for decades
XI. ROOSEVELT ON THE WORLD STAGE
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Roosevelt charged onto the world stage
with the Russo-Japanese War (1904)
Japan wanted to extend their influence,
did not approve of Europeans actions
Did not like Russian troops in
Manchuria
1904 Japan destroys Russian fleet,
Russian troops
Beginning of Russo- Japanese War
Roosevelt wanted to keep balance of
power, Japan saw war eventually not
going their way and asked US for help,
called peace conference Portsmouth,
New Hampshire (1905)
Neither Japan or Russia felt satisfied,
beginning of US/Japan rivalry in East
Asia
Roosevelt won Nobel Peace Prize for his
efforts in Manchuria and North Africa
XII. JAPANESE LABOR IN CALIFORNIA
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Because of war many Japanese immigrants
came to California
Many Californians were upset at “yellow peril”
1906 San Francisco school board ordered
segregation of schools to make room for white
students
Incident caused international crisis, inflamed by
press
1908- Roosevelt forces “Gentlemen's’
Agreement” with Japan
A Japanese note agreeing to deny passports to
laborers entering the U.S.
Japan recognized the U.S. right to exclude
Japanese immigrants holding passports issued
by other countries.
The U.S. government got the school board of San
Francisco to rescind their order to segregate
Asians in separate schools
1908- Root-Takaharia agreement both powers
respect the others right to open door in China
XIII. THE GREAT WHITE FLEET
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1907-1909 - To impress other world powers
Roosevelt sends entire battle fleet around the
world
AMERICA AS A PACIFIC POWER
TAFT AND DOLLAR DIPLOMACY
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1908- William Howard Taft succeeded
Roosevelt as president
Foreign policy was to maintain “open
door policy in Asia, expand American
trade, keep stability in Latin America
Substitute “dollars for bullets”, foreign
diplomacy was what was best for
American economic interests
Increase American investment in
Latin America
Provide money for Latin American
governments
Had to put money into Honduras and
Haiti to keep out foreign funds
Used armed forces in Dominican
Republic, Cuba and Honduras to
protect American investments
1913- sent Marines to Nicaragua to
protect investments, stayed until 1925
WILSON AND MORAL DIPLOMACY
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1912 Woodrow Wilson, president,
change course of foreign policy
Promote independent government in
Latin America, not American control,
condemned colonialism
Called “moral diplomacy”, US conscience
of the world
Did use U.S. military- Haiti (1915)
protect American investments, stayed
for 17 years
Used soldiers in Dominican Republic,
Mexico
1917 signed Jones Act that gave
Philippines territorial status and
promised independence (achieved 1945)
MORALISTIC DIPLOMACY IN MEXICO
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Mexico wide gap between wealthy and
poor, most were poor
Late 1800’s American investment in
Mexico expanded
1910 revolution in Mexico
1913 military dictator executed new
president, assumed power (General
Huerta)
Wilson did not recognize government
Mexican – American borderland culture
Chaos accelerated Mexican immigration
to US, formation of Mexican – American
borderland culture, threat to American
investment
Favored Carranza, sent arms for support
U.S. Marines and warships sent to
Veracruz, Mexico
MORALISTIC DIPLOMACY IN MEXICO
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U.S. Marines and warships sent to
Veracruz, Mexico
American sailors arrested in Mexico,
excuse needed to occupy Veracruz
All sides in Mexico resented
Americans, caused downfall of Huerta,
Carranza new president
Period of revolution saw rise of bandit
gangs across Mexico
“Pancho” Villa attacks and kills
Americans
1916- Wilson sent 11,000 troops under
Gen. John J. Pershing to find Villa
1917- return to US because of WW I
World War I test of new American
global strength
Mexico incident proving ground for
new weapons used in WWI
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The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution