Immigration
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Immigration
Assimilation
Theories
Primary Sources
Article
Asylum
Test #2 next class
“Perhaps the most valuable
result of all education is the
ability to make yourself do the
thing you have to do, when it
ought to be done, whether you
like it or not.” – Thomas Henry
Huxley, Biologist
Where are most legal immigrants from?
Top 10 in 2010
Source: U.S.
Department
of Homeland
Security
http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/
assets/statistics/publication
s/natz_fr_2010.pdf
Mexico
India
Philippines
China
Vietnam
Colombia
Dominican Republic
Cuba
Haiti
Jamaica
What parts of the U.S. do most immigrants settle in?
What parts of the U.S. do most immigrants settle in? And why?
California
Illinois
New York
New
Jersey
Florida
Texas
Push and Pull factors of Immigration into the U.S.
Push factors
poverty
famine
unemployment
wars
military draft
religious or political
persecution
Push and Pull factors of Immigration into the U.S.
Pull factors
perception of endless
opportunities
employment
family
religious freedom
economic freedom
education
I am a ...
1.
2.
3.
4.
First generation immigrant (came to the U.S. not born here)
Second generation (parents came to the U.S., born here)
Third generation (grandparents came to U.S.)
Family has been in the U.S. more than 3
generations
What is assimilation?
Assimilation
1. Robert E. Park’s traditional assimilation theory
2. Milton Gordon’s contemporary views
3. Horace Kallen’s cultural pluralism
.
Robert Park’s traditional assimilation model,
assimilation occurs after 3 generations.
• 1st: struggle to learn the new way of new country, hold on to
many aspects of their culture
American
According to Robert Park’s traditional assimilation model
• 2nd: attend public schools
learn English better than parents
may move out of ethnically grouped neighborhoods
marry someone outside of their race.
Still seen as outsiders and may consider themselves outsiders
American
Robert Park’s traditional assimilation model
• 3rd: grandchildren of immigrants, move completely
into mainstream of American life.
May learn a few words of grandparents’ language, know a few
recipes, or proverbs, but speak mostly English
Few questions regarding their nationality
American
According to traditional assimilation
model, assimilation occurs after 3
generations.
• 1st: struggles to learn the new way
• 2nd: learn English better than parents,
move out of ethnically grouped
neighborhoods, marry someone outside
of their race. Still seen as outsiders
• 3rd: move completely into the
mainstream American life.
In your opinion or
personal
experiences has
this been true?
Criticism of traditional assimilation model
1. Ignores age of entry
2. Ignores race
3. Ignores choice
Criticism of traditional assimilation model
4. Ignores group size,
concentrations, and time of entry
5. Ignores similarity between the
cultures
Milton Gordon’s Contemporary Views on Assimilation
Gordon described 7
different sub processes
of assimilation
Milton Gordon’s Contemporary Views on Assimilation
Some feel that not all are possible
1. Cultural (practices and traditions)
2. Structural (schools, jobs, housing, recreational spheres of society)
3. Marital (acceptable partners)
4. Identificational (the group you identify with)
5. Attitudinal (prejudice)
6. Behavioral (discrimination)
7. Civic (political power, representation in politics) assimilation.
Melting Pot vs. Salad Bowl
Italian
Cuban
Japanese
Italian
Cuban
Cultural Pluralism
America
America
Japanese
Horace Kallen’s Cultural Pluralism
Majority’s culture should not replace minority’s culture
But add to it
Minority group’s ways
should be accepted
Should be seen as
“Americanized” without
disappearing as distinctive
groups
Italian
Cuban
Cultural Pluralism
America
Japanese
Melting Pot vs. Salad Bowl
Which do you
feel is better
for the United
States? Why?
Cultural Pluralism
Primary Sources
Images from the California Library of Congress
1. Walk around and view all of the images
2. Stand by the image that interests you most (NO MORE THAN 3
PEOPLE PER IMAGE)
3. With the others at your image answer the following questions:
(Try avoiding group members that already sit near you)
a) Why did you select this image?
b) What do you think is happening in this image? Who?
What ? Where? When?
c) Why do you think this image was selected for class?
d) Select a speaker
e) Return to your seats when you hear the buzzer
Interested in the historical background?
Visit the Library of Congress website
Washington D.C.
Largest library in the world
http://www.loc.gov/index.html
Chiricahua Apaches as they arrived at Carlisle from Fort Marion, Florida
November 4th, 1886
“Kill the Indian and save the man”
~ Captain Richard Henry Pratt, Founder, Carlisle Indian School, PA
Title: Group of Indian Boys, from Dakota territory, taken after about fifteen
month's residence at Hampton, Virginia. March, 1880.
Educating the Indians.
Illustration. Frank Leslie’s
Illustrated newspaper, 15
March 1884.
Title: View of Ellis Island
Looking across water toward immigration station
New York 1913.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r_zDeHhJox8
"Work on the Last Mile of the Pacific Railroad -- Mingling of European with
Asiatic Laborers": From Harper's Weekly: Harper's Weekly, Vol. 13 Image
created 1869
Chinese immigrants made up 90% of workers on U.S. railroads in mid to late 1800’s.
However white workers did not allow Chinese immigrants to be in the photo marking
the completion of the railroad to the West Coast
Music for the Nation:
American Sheet Music
The Chinamen must go by
H. B. Pasmore.
CREATED/PUBLISHED
San Francisco: Gibson, J. W.,
1880.
1860’s New York. Discrimination against Irish in the job market.
Political cartoon titled "The Usual Irish Way of Doing Things" by Thomas
Nast (1840-1902) published in Harper's Weekly on September 2nd 1871
History of Discrimination in Immigration Law
• Chinese Exclusion Act 1882: excluded Chinese laborers for 10 years
• Immigration Act of 1921: restrictions Southern and Eastern Europe,
quota for each nationality.
Japanese American Internment During World War II
Title: Japanese residents at Civil Control station for registration
San Francisco April 1942
After Pear Harbor
attack, President
Franklin Roosevelt
ordered that everyone
who was one-eighth
Japanese or more be
confined in detention
centers called
“internment camps”
with no trials, no crime
charge
http://www.youtube.c
om/watch?v=C7NVY
BfZ310
Japanese American Internment During World War II
Title: Residents of Japanese ancestry awaiting the bus at the Wartime Civil
Control San Francisco, April 1942
htt
p://
ww
w.y
out
ub
e.c
om
/w
atc
h?
v=
6m
r97
qy
KA
2s
&fe
atu
re=
rel
ate
d
Attorneys for Brown v.
Board of Education
George E. C. Hayes,
Thurgood Marshall, and
James M. Nabrit
congratulating each other on
the Brown vs. Board of
Education decision, May 17,
1954.
United States Supreme
Court’s landmark decision that
declared segregation in
schools unconstitutional
Ruby Bridges New Orleans, Louisiana 1960, when she was 6 years old, her
parents responded to a call from the NAACP and volunteered her to participate
in the integration of the New Orleans School system. She is known as the first
African-American child to attend an all-white elementary school in the South
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4nrkMxorZT4&feature=related
Oct 1954, Baltimore, Maryland, USA --- Police stand guard as a group of
African American students, escorted by Reverend James L. Johnson, march
past demonstrators protesting desegregation at Baltimore high schools..
Cesar Chavez 1960’s Mexican-American farm worker, labor leader and civil
rights activist who co-founded the National Farm Workers Association. His work
led to numerous improvements for union workers.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zeo-q-8MOQ4
Cesar Chavez, Robert Kennedy Cesar Chavez breaks his 25-day fast by
accepting bread from Senator Robert Kennedy, Delano, California.
Left to right: Helen Chavez, Robert Kennedy, Cesar Chavez March 10, 1968
When Filipino American
farm workers initiated
the Delano grape strike
on September 8, 1965 to
protest for higher wages,
Cesar Chávez eagerly
supported them.
July 31st, 2010 Temecula, CA “Small group protests the building of a
mosque in Temecula” LA Times
“We are more alike,
my friends, than we
are unalike.”
Quote from Poem
Human Family
by Maya Angelou
History of Discrimination in Immigration Law
National Origins Act 1924: Southern Europeans and East Asians
and Indians
1950’s eject suspected Communists from the country (usinfo.state.gov)
History of Discrimination in Immigration Law
Great Depression: Mexicans and Mexican-Americans faced mass
deportation
Post World War II: 1954 "Operation Wetback," President
Eisenhower, a speculated 1 million Mexicans deported along with
their U.S. born children
Effects of Post 9/11 Security Measures
USA Patriot Act of 2001: put immigration under control of
Department of Homeland Security
2003: Men from Pakistan and Saudi Arabia in US, legal
immigrants, had to register for the controversial National
Security Entry-Exit Registration System or face deportation.
The ethnicity of immigrants was a focus during times of
national crisis
Illegal Immigration
Terms
Immigrant does not = illegal immigrant
Illegal immigrants also called undocumented workers/
undocumented students
Remember immigrant does not =Latino/a
Be respectful
Article on Immigration Solutions
(1) More border control.
(2) Prevent employers from hiring undocumented immigrants.
(3) Withhold government services from unauthorized immigrants.
(4) Grant workers a path to gain citizenship or work permits.
(5) Give police the authority and responsibility to identify illegal
immigrants (Arizona SB 1070)
Groups
1. Each person: introduce yourself
2. Tell your group when your birthday is (just day and month, not year)
3. Put your group in order from 1-5 depending on your birthday
(Jan-Dec)
Pros and Cons of the Solutions
a) Which do you think is best? Why?
b) Which do you think is worst? Why?
c) List 1-3 other pros or cons for each
solution. (Besides those already in the article)
(1) More border control.
(2) Prevent employers from
hiring undocumented
immigrants.
(3) Withhold government
services from
unauthorized immigrants.
(4) Grant workers a path to
gain citizenship or work
permits.
(5) Give police the authority
and responsibility to
identify illegal immigrants
(Arizona SB 1070)
ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION
Views for
deportation of illegal
immigrants
Views against
deportation of illegal
immigrants
Asylum
protection granted by a nation to someone who has left their
native country as a political refugee
Asylum may be granted due to
Fear of return to country based on persecution
related to:
•race
•religion
•political opinion
•social group
Must show:
•10 years in U.S.
•Otherwise clean criminal record
•Relative who is U.S. citizen would suffer exceptional
hardship if deported
Extra Credit Movie
Next class
Test #2
Use Study Guide
Tuesday March 11th, 2014
• Come to class on time
• Bring a scantron (standard 50 question scantron 882-E) and
pencil
• Study class notes, slides on website, articles and textbook
reading assignments. Use the study guide!
• 25 questions, multiple choice
(ICE= United States
Immigration and Customs
Enforcement)
Download

Is assimilation inevitable?