We Take Nothing By Conquest, Thank God
Written By: Howard Zinn in
A People’s History of the United States
Presentation By: Sydney Delville, CHS 245OL, Class Number 14004
Overview
• During the course of the presentation these are the important United States
events and concepts that will be presented on…
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President Thomas Jefferson
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Louisiana Purchase
Mexico Independence
Texas apart of the United States Union
President James Polk Orders
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The Start of the acquisition of California
Invasion of Rio Grande
Start of the Mexican- American War
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Spring of 1846
President Polk push for the declaration of war against Mexico
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Congress get push to declare War Against Mexico
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Support for the Mexican- American War
Soldiers of the War
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• Democrat Party wants to declare war, Whig Party does not
• Measure passed 40-2, thus, Congress declares war on Mexico
• Anti-Slavery Congress members did not want to declare war on Mexico
Voluntary draft
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Lack of water and resources
Horrible conditions
Solider Recruitment: Continuation of Solider of the War
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First there was a lot of recruitment but recruitment stopped
German and Irish immigrants
Update on the Battlefield
Independence of the States
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California and New Mexico invasion
Mexican revolts rebel and fight back
Mexican American War, The End is Near
In the end
President Thomas Jefferson
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Louisiana Purchase (Primary Documents
of History, Library of Congress)
• Occurred on October 20, 1803, when
the United States purchased
Louisiana Territory from France for
$15 million
• Doubled the territory of the United
States extending into the Rocky
Mountains
Mexico gained Independence
• In 1821 Mexico won independence
from Spain. Mexico at the time
included Texas, New Mexico, Utah,
Nevada, Arizona, California and a
part of Colorado.
In 1836 Texas broke off from Mexico
and declared itself “Lone Star
Republic”
─ In 1845 Texas was brought into the
Union as a state of the United States
Louisiana Purchase
Mexico’s territory in 1821
President James Polk
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President James Polk entered the White
House as an expansionist
• On the night of his inauguration he
confessed to his Secretary of the Navy
that one of his major objectives was the
acquisition of California.
The start of the acquisition of California
• President Polk ordered General Zachary
Taylor the twelfth president of the United
States, to move troops to the Rio Grande
in order to challenge the Mexicans
• General Taylor did not agree with the
idea of annexation of Texas, but since
getting his marching orders his attitudes
changed
• General Taylor moved troops to Corpus General Zachary Taylor
Christi, Texas just cross the Nueces River
• In February 1846 the troops then moved
down the Gulf Coast to the Rio Grande
• March 28, 1946 troops invaded abandon
territories by the Mexicans
• The newspaper the Washington Union
published an article expressing the
position of President Polk and the
Democratic Party
President James Polk
Start of the Mexican-American War
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Spring of 1846 the President Polk finally got the
military incident that he wanted
In April Colonel Cross disappeared while riding up
the Rio Grande. Eleven days later he was found
dead. It was assumed that he was murdered by the
Mexican guerrillas.
April 25, 1846 a patrol of General Taylors soldiers
were attacked by Mexicans and wiped out. Leaving
16 dead, others wounded and the other captured.
General Taylor then sent a message to President
Polk about the hostages.
According to Colonel Hitchcock the Mexicans fired
the first shot but it was only because the United
States Government wanted them to.
May 9, 1846 before any battles were started
President Polk gathered his cabinet suggesting the
declaration of the Mexican American war.
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President Polk used the dispatch of American troops
to the Rio Grande as a necessary of war measure.
President Polk and his cabinet
Congress Gets Pushed into Declaring War Against
Mexico
• After President Polk used the American troops to the Rio Grande as a
reason for necessary measure of defense.
• Polk then sent American troops into dissent territory, historically controlled and
inhabited by the Mexicans
• Due to this decision by President Polk, Congress rushed to approve the
war message.
• The Democratic in the house during this time promptly agreed to Polk’s war
recommendations.
• The Whig Party however, was did not agree on declaring war against Mexico, the
party wanted California but did not want to involve the country in war.
• Senate had one day to debate on the declaration of war on Mexico
• The measure passed 40-2 with the Whig Party joining the Democrats
• Anti-Slavery Congress members did not want to declare war on Mexico, because
they saw the extension of the United States as a way of extending the southern slave
territory
• Many different demonstrations in various locations including Baltimore,
Philadelphia, New York, and Indianapolis for the war, and many individuals began
to volunteer for the army
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Support for the War
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As the Mexican-American War
started in the Spring of 1846 the
opposition grew
Many different individuals and
organizations such as the…
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American Anti-Slavery Society
Poet Henry David Thoreau, who
stopped paying his poll taxes because
of his opposition with the war
The American Peace Society
Congressman Abraham Lincoln
Frederick Douglas former slave and
speaker
New York and Irish workingmen
Frederick Douglas
American Anti- Slavery Society
Popular opinion was very hard to say
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The popular opinion was taken from the
newspapers claiming to be the voice of the
people. Due to this it is impossible to know
the extent of popular support of the war
Henry David Thoreau
Abraham Lincoln
Introduction Documentary Clip
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hj
UEBDOOSDM
(Click link to play video in browser)
In this documentary clip produced by the History Channel, discuss what has been
explained thus far in the presentation including how the war started, what President
Polk’s intentions were for the war.
Soldiers of the War
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At first there seemed to be enthusiasm that
was founded by patriotism with the United
States and money
There is very little knowledge of Mexican
soldiers in the war
There is more knowledge of American
soldiers including
• The amount of individuals who
volunteered for the war
• Lured by money and opportunity
for social advancement
• Mostly German and Irish
immigrants
• Irish and German soldiers not
loyal to the United States and
deserted to the Mexican side
forming their own battalion
This is an example of what a recruitment poster
would look like,
specifically for the United States troops
Soldier Recruitment:
Continuation of Soldiers of the War
• Recruitment of soldiers
• Promises and lies in order to
get people to enlist in the
army
• Fall 1846 physical
requirements for enlistment
to the army lowered in order
to enlist more people
This is a painted depiction of soldiers in the Mexican
American War
Mexican soldiers are in the green
American soldiers are in the blue
Update on the Battlefield
• During the same time as the
United States recruiting
more soldiers
• In the battlefield, Mexico
brought 5 thousand soldiers
to Rio Grande to meet the
United States, with 3
thousand soldiers and they
began to release fire on each
other.
• This left 500 Mexican soldiers
dead or wounded
• 50 American causalities
This painting is a depiction of what is imagined
to happen during the Mexican American war
against the Mexican and American troops
Independence of States?
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In California at this same time
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In New Mexico during August
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General Kennedy moved United States troops
into New Mexico and Santa Fe was taken
without a battle
In New Mexico during December
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Anglo Americans invaded Spanish colonist
and began to still horses and declare that
California was no longer
Mexicans in Tao rebelled against U.S.
soldiers
Many Mexicans were arrested and killed. Of
those individuals that were not killed or
arrested they escaped and attacked and killed
a number of Americans
In September of 1846
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Many different Mexicans revolted forcing
American garrisons to surrender.
This is a painting of the Mexican troops
Mexican-American War, The End is Near
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As General Taylor was moving troops
southward towards Rio Grande the
conditions for the soldiers worsened.
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Many soldiers became unruly in Mexican
territories and plagued Mexican villages with
drunk soldiers, and the counts of rape
heightened
Heat became unbearable, the water was
impure, and sickness overall grew
One thousand soldiers died under these
conditions
The death toll continued to grew as the
soldiers moved southward to Monterey and
fought in other battles
As the war continued it was looked at as the
Mexican elite against the American elite
killing each others soldiers as well as their
own.
Mexican-American War, The End is Near
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The last battle
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General Scott moved towards Mexico City
On the outskirts of Mexico City, in Churubusco
Mexican and American troops fought and one
thousand soldiers died
In September 1847, Anglo American troops entered
Chapultepec of 200,00 people as General Santa Ana
of Mexico's side moved northward
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March 1847
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Army troops reported over a thousand deserts
Total number of deserts during the war was 9,207
August 15th 1847
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Volunteer regiments form Virginia,
Mississippi, and North Carolina rebelled in
the North of Mexico against Colonel Robert
Treat Pain.
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Mexico surrendered
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Glory of the war was well celebrated by
President Polk and the generals including
General Scott and General Taylor
This is a painting of General Scott as he invades Mexico City
In The End
• Mexico surrendered
• Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
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One of the biggest documents
signed after the Mexican-American
War
Signed February 1848
• Texas boundary was set at Rio
Grande
• New Mexico and California were
now apart of the United States
• The United States paid Mexico $15
million
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Which led the Whig Intelligence to
conclude that “We Take Nothing By
Conquest…. Thank God”
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo document
Reference Page
"Mexican American War." YouTube. History Channel, 28 Sept. 2009. Web. 03
Apr. 2014.
"Primary Documents in American History." Louisiana Purchase: Primary
Documents of American History. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2014.
Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. New York: Harper
Perennial Modern Classics, 2005. Print.
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We Take Nothing By Conquest, Thank God