APUSH 9.16.13
• Mid terms will be posted today- 3:00 p.m.
• Unit 3- The Gilded Age and Urban America
– Monday Power point Notes Outline with targets
– Assignment #1 Brinkley Questions and Chart Questions due Friday
• Card sort “The Tycoons of Industry”
•
•
AP Reading- “The Robber Barons” and Questions due next week
America- The story of US #3 this week-- Cities
•
Next Week at a glance- Immigration Simulation
U.S. History 9.16.13
• Mid terms will be posted today- 3:00 p.m.
• Unit 3- The Gilded Age and Urban America
– Monday Power point Notes Outline with targets
– ASSIGNMENT
– Guided Readings Chapter 9 -Questions due Friday
• Card sort “The Tycoons of Industry”
• America- The story of US #3 this week– Cities
• Next Week at a glance- Immigration Simulation
Cs. 9 & 17
ACT
Common Core Standards for U.S. History Targets: We will….
• Evaluate the impact of new inventions and technologies of the
late nineteenth century
• Identify and evaluate the influences on business and industry
in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
• Identify labor and workforce issues of the late nineteenth century, including
perspectives of owners/managers and Social Darwinists
The Gilded Age:
• Mark Twain coined the phrase: Something that is
gilded is covered with gold on the outside but made of cheaper
material inside, sometimes corrupting and corroding.
• Beneath the surface of a great Industrial Boom and increase in
the overall standard of living for Americans, there lay beneath
the surface: corruption, poverty, crime and great disparities in
wealth between the rich and the poor.
•
The Gilded Age
LEFT: The DOI is a Letter, a petition; 1776. It
was where we were first called the United States;
RIGHT: The Constitution is a Contract: a
framework of government: it is Laws 1787
Happy Birthday to the U.S. Constitution
• September 17, 1787
• How Old??
• 2013-1787= _______
• http://www.bluebullets.net/html/html/constituti
on_scavenger_hunt.html
• Or
• Google: blue bullets constitution scavenger
Essential Question
Industrialization
increased the standard
of living and the
opportunities of most
Americans,
but at what cost?
The Gilded Age
John D. Rockefeller
The ‘Bosses’ of the Senate
7. Social and Economic Darwinism
The Principle of the “Survival of the Fittest”
Darwinism: Survival of the Fittest / Natural
Selection was applied to economics
Standard Oil Trust
• Control of 90% of U.S. Refining Capacity
• Through “Horizontal Integration”
• Monopoly?
Obstacles in Industry
-Before this era, most women worked as SERVANTS
-Many women were underpaid and factories were not safe
-146 female workers died in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire
-While safety concerns abounded, progress was still made
-The Bessemer Process of making steel made skyscrapers possible;
elevators also made this possible
-Daniel Burnham designed Chicago with a lakefront park system
-Unions formed the Industrial Workers of the World to fight for the
rights of factory labor; this is called COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
-The government started the Interstate Commerce Act to lower excessive
railroad rates
-Yet, corruption abounded. For example, Credit Mobilier began to steal
railroad money for share holders of stock
APUSH 9.18.13
• 1. Pw-pnt. Notes– Page 2 Industrialization and the Rise of Big Business
• Thomas Edison, Andrew Carnegie and Henry Ford
– Turn in Notes Packet today to top tray– 30 points Pages 1-3
• 2. Chapter 17 Assignment: Reading and Questions
• Tomorrow- America, The Story of US part 1– “The Cities”
– During the 2nd part of class.
IV. ACT
Common Core Standards for U.S. History Targets: We will….
• Evaluate the impact of new inventions and technologies of the late
nineteenth century
• Identify and evaluate the influences on business and industry in the late
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
• Identify labor and workforce issues of the late nineteenth century, including
perspectives of owners/managers and Social Darwinists
U.S. History 9.18.13
• 1. Pw-pnt. Notes– Page 2 Industrialization and the Rise of Big Business
• Thomas Edison, Andrew Carnegie and Henry Ford
– Turn in Notes Packet today to top tray– 10 points
• 2. Chapter 9 Assignment: Guided Reading 9.1 Today– Packet Due
Monday
• Thursday/Friday– SIMULATED ACTIVITY– ASSEMBLY LINE AND DIVISION OF LABOR
• John D. Rockefeller
• America, The Story of US part 1– “The Cities”
IV. ACT
Common Core Standards for U.S. History Targets: We will….
• Evaluate the impact of new inventions and technologies of the late
nineteenth century :
– Bessemer Steel Process, Ediphone, Phonograph, AC/DC Current, Internal Combustible
Engine, etc.
• Identify and evaluate the influences on business and industry in the late
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries:
– Trusts, Monopolies, Corporations, Horizontal and Vertical Integration
• Identify labor and workforce issues of the late nineteenth century, including
perspectives of owners/managers and Social Darwinists
– Labor Disputes, Social Darwinism, “Abusive Competition” and Capitalism
Thomas Alva Edison
“Wizard of Menlo Park”
Thomas A. Edison
The Incandescent Light Bulb
The Phonograph (1877)
The Ediphone or Dictaphone
The Motion Picture Camera
Alexander Graham Bell
Telephone (1876)
3. Alternate Current
George Westinghouse
Niagara Falls
3. cont. Alternate Current
Westinghouse Lamp ad
The Airplane
Wilbur Wright
Orville Wright
Kitty Hawk, NC – December 7, 1903
5. Model T Automobile
Henry Ford
I want to pay my workers so that they can
afford my product!
“Model T” Prices & Sales
Henry Ford: Specialization and the Assembly Line
• The Assembly Line
• “Division of Labor”
• “Specialization”
Clip: History.com
U. S. Patents Granted
1790s  276 patents issued.
1990s  1,119,220 patents issued.
Andrew Carnegie
• Tycoon of Steel– U.S. Steel: Pittsburgh, PA
Henry Ford
Home Insurance Building
Steel Technology
6. The Heart of the Industrial Boom of the 1800s--The “Rust Belt” today
7. Steel Industry
Iron & Steel Production
5. Bessemer Process
The Bessemer Process for Steel
Causes of Rapid Industrialization
1. Steam Revolution of the 1830s-1850s.
2. The Railroad fueled the growing US
economy:
 First big business in the US.
 A magnet for financial investment.
 The key to opening the West.
 Aided the development of other
industries.
Causes of Rapid Industrialization
3. Technological innovations.
 Bessemer and open hearth


process
Refrigerated cars
Edison
o “Wizard of Menlo Park”
o light bulb, phonograph, motion
pictures.
Causes of Rapid
Industrialization
4. Unskilled & semi-skilled
labor in abundance.
5. Abundant capital.
6. New, talented group of businessmen
[entrepreneurs] and advisors.
7. Market growing as US population increased.
8. Government willing to help at all levels to
stimulate economic growth.
9. Abundant natural resources.
The Bessemer Process
• 8. Free Enterprise
• A. Laissez-fair, a French phase that
means “let people do as they choose,”
was a popular idea in the late 1800s.
• B. Many believed government should not
interfere with the economy. Instead
they wanted supply and demand to
regulate prices and wages.
• Make an argument for both sides.
Regulation and non-regulation today
#3 New Approach to
Management and Business
Organization
• III. Free Enterprise
• A. Laissez-fair, a French phase that means “let
people do as they choose,” was a popular idea in the
late 1800s. UNRESTRICTED CAPITALISM!!!
• B. Many believed government should not interfere
with the economy. Instead they wanted supply and
demand to regulate prices and wages.
• Make an argument for both sides. Regulation and
non-regulation today
III. New Business Culture
1. Laissez Faire  the ideology of the
Industrial Age.
 Individual as a moral and economic ideal.
 Individuals should compete freely in the


marketplace.
The market was not man-made or invented.
No room for government in the market!
New Business Culture
1. Laissez Faire  the ideology of the
Industrial Age.
 Individual as a moral and economic
ideal.
 Individuals should compete freely in
the marketplace.
 The market was not man-made or
invented.
 No room for government in the
market!
2. Social Darwinism
 British economist.
 Advocate of
laissez-faire.
 Adapted Darwin’s
ideas from the
“Origin of Species”
to humans.
Herbert Spencer
 Notion of “Survival
of the Fittest.”
2. Social Darwinism in America
$ Individuals must
have absolute
freedom to struggle,
succeed or fail.
William Graham Sumner
Folkways (1906)
$ Therefore, state
intervention to
reward society and
the economy is
futile!
7. Social and Economic Darwinism
The Principle of the “Survival of the Fittest”
Darwinism: Survival of the Fittest / Natural
Selection was applied to economics
New Business Culture:
“The American Dream?”
3. Protestant (Puritan) “Work Ethic”
 Horatio Alger [100+ novels]
Is the idea of the “self-made man” a MYTH??
Standard Oil Co.
New Type of Business Entities
2. Trust:
 Horizontal Integration  John D.
Rockefeller

Vertical Integration:
o Gustavus Swift  Meat-packing
o Andrew Carnegie  U. S. Steel
Horizontal Integration: OIL
Vertical Integration STEEL
Yum Brands- Horizontal
Integration
Hot Pockets: Part of a Conglomerate
#4. New Type of Business Entities
1.
Pool
1887 Interstate Commerce Act
 Interstate Commerce
Commission created.
Quartz Mining
2. Trust  John D.
Rockefeller
 Standard Oil Co.
#4. New Type of Business Entities
3. Corporation
4. Monopoly John D.
Rockefeller
 Standard Oil Co.
#6 Symptoms of Monopoly
• The Industrial Power of the U.S. is controlled
by just a few individuals and industries:
“Powerful Corporations and Trusts”-1. John D. Rockefeller: Oil
2. Cornelius Vanderbilt: Railroads
3. Andrew Carnegie: Steel
4. J.P. Morgan: Finance and Banking
#7 Natural Resources in
Abundance in America
•
•
•
•
•
Trees
Water Power
Oil
Iron Ore
Coal
John D. Rockefeller
J.D. Rockefeller
The ‘Bosses’ of the Senate
#8 New Business Culture
1. Laissez Faire  the ideology of the
Industrial Age.
 Individual as a moral and economic
ideal.
 Individuals should compete freely in
the marketplace.
 The market was not man-made or
invented.
 No room for government
REGULATION in the market!
New Type of Business Entities
U. S. Corporate Mergers
New Financial Businessman
The Broker:
 J. Pierpont Morgan
Wall Street – 1867 & 1900
The Reorganization of Work
Frederick W. Taylor
The Principles of Scientific Management (1911)
The Reorganization of Work
The Assembly Line
% of Billionaires in 1900
% of Billionaires in 1918
The Protectors of Our Industries
The ‘Bosses’ of the Senate
The ‘Robber Barons’ of the Past
Cornelius [“Commodore”] Vanderbilt
Can’t I do what I want with my money?
William Vanderbilt
$ The public be
damned!
$ What do I care
about the law?
H’aint I got the
power?
The Gospel of Wealth:
Religion in the Era of Industrialization
$ Wealth no longer
looked upon as bad.
$ Viewed as a sign of
God’s approval.
$ Christian duty to
accumulate wealth.
$ Should not help the
poor.
Russell H. Conwell
“On Wealth”
$ The Anglo-Saxon race
Andrew Carnegie
is superior.
$ “Gospel of Wealth”
(1901).
$ Inequality is inevitable
and good.
$ Wealthy should act as
“trustees” for their
“poorer brethren.”
Regulating the Trusts
1877  Munn. v. IL
1886  Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific
Railroad Company v. IL
1890  Sherman Antitrust Act
 in “restraint of trade”
 “rule of reason” loophole
1895  US v. E. C. Knight Co.
Relative Share of World
Manufacturing
Modern ‘Robber Barons’??
Westward Migration
Mining in the West: Gold in Colorado
Transcontinental Railroad
Cultures Class on the Prairie
Expanding West
-The federal government wanted people to go west
-A homesteader was a person who got land from the federal government
to settle west
-As this occurred, more people were able to send beef back east; this lead
to the Chisholm Trail.
-The government created the Morrill Act that gave money to finance
agricultural colleges
-The Dawes Act was also created to help white settlers by poorly
allocating land to Native Americans
-Some worked on Bonanza farms, massive single crop farms owned by
railroads and companies
Bland-Alison Act:
Back Money with Silver
More and the West and Conflict
-Another the government gave was the Homestead
Act, which gave 160 acres to families in the west
-Originally, the government gave huge reservations to
the Indians, but this changed once whites wanted to
move to the area
-The government had a racist approach to giving land
to Native Americans
-The government had many skirmishes with Native
Americans who resisted expansion; yet, the final
battle, the massacre of Wounded Knee, ended this
tension
The Age of Railroads
Organized Labor In Agriculture
-The Grange formed to fight banks whom they felt were
not treating them correctly
-This movement gained some momentum; yet, it
collapsed when William McKinley, an anti-populist
candidate, was elected to office
-Farmers felt that the rich were hording all the wealth due
to the gold currency
-Therefore, they wanted silver to be used for currency to
put more money in circulation
-This is called bimetallism
-During this time, the town of Pullman arose
-It was unique because it was built for the purpose of
housing its workers in manufacturing & the railroad
Oliver Hudson Kelley:
Founder of the Grange
The Grange
Joseph Glidden: Inventor of Barbed Wire
Notes on Sec. 1 the Rise of
Industry
• I. the US Industrializes
• A. with the end of the Civil War, American
industry expanded and millions of people left
their farms to work in mines and factories
• B. By the early 1900s, US had become the
world’s leading industrial nation
• By 1914 the gross national product (GNP), or
total value of goods and services produced by
a country, was 8x greater than at the end of
the Civil War
• C. Water, timber, coal, iron and copper
are natural resources found in the US
that lead to the countries industrial
success
• How did the construction of
transcontinental railroads add to an
increase in industrialization?
• D. What were the early uses of
Petroleum?
• What industry was put out of business
by the oil industry?
Titusville, Pennsylvania 1859
• In 1859 Edwin Drake drilled the first oil well
near Titusville, Pennsylvania. As oil
production increased, so did economic
expansion (See Previous Picture)
• E. Between 1860 and 1910, the
population of the US tripled. Why is
this significant for industrialization?
• II. Free Enterprise
• A. Laissez-fair, a French phase that
means “let people do as they choose,”
was a popular idea in the late 1800s.
• B. Many believed government should not
interfere with the economy. Instead
they wanted supply and demand to
regulate prices and wages.
• Make an argument for both sides.
Regulation or non-regulation today
• B. What is an Entrepreneur?
• They risked their capital to run a business. In the
late 1800s, they were attracted to manufacturing and
transportation fields.
•
• As a result, hundreds of factories and thousands of
miles of railroad were built.
•
Another important source of private capital was
Europe. Why would foreign investors invest in
American companies?
• III. Government’s Role in Industrialism
• A. In the late 1800s, government had a laissez-faire
attitude by keeping taxes and spending low and by not
imposing regulations on industry.
• Who would this help?
• Who would this hurt?
• B. Since the early 1800s, Northern States and
Southern States debated on economic policies. Why
would the northern states want a tariff on
manufactured goods?
• Why would southern states oppose a tariff?
• When the South seceded the Morrill Tariff was
passed, which reversed years of declining tariffs.
Why was Congress able to pass it passed during the
Civil War?
• C. Some Americans were harmed by this tariff. What
would other countries do when the US raised tariffs?
• Which group particularly would be harmed? Why?
• By the early 1900s, American industries
were large and highly competitive. Many
business leaders now favored free
trade, believing they could compete
internationally and succeed.
• Make a chart of the inventions and
inventors on p. 311 and 312.
#5 Social Darwinism Arises
-Social Darwinism discouraged government regulation and claimed
the strongest companies should survive
-This lead to monopolies; yet, legislation like the Sherman Antitrust Act outlawed the formation of trusts that interfered with free
trade IN ORDER TO CREATE MORE COMPETITION
-Vertical Integration occurred, where companies tried to by out all
raw resources for their products
-Horizontal Integration also occurred, where companies bought out
similar companies
-Strikes were used by labor to fight back, such as the Great Strike
of 1877 in the railroad industry
-The railroads allowed cities to expand OUTWARD and time
zones were made mainly to benefit railroad companies & travelers
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Gilded Age - Williamstown Independent Schools