The
Non-Chalcedonian Orthodox
Church
Timeline
49 A.D. Council of Jerusalem
- ACTS (exempted all pagan converts from the laws of Judaism )
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325 A.D. Council of Nicea (the Doctrine of the Trinity and said
that Jesus is Human and Divine, wrote the Nicean Creed)
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381 A.D. First Council of Constantinople (belief in Holy Spirit
added to Nicean Creed)
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431 A.D. Council of Ephesus (Christ has two natures but one
person)
Council of Chalcedon
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451(AD)
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held to oppose the Monophysites who rejected the
two natures of Christ
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Council declared that “Christ existed in two natures,
without mixture or change, without division or
separation, but that His two natures were held in
union in one person without losing the separate
distinction of either nature”(1)
NON-Chalcedonian Orthodox Church
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Rejected Council of Chalcedon, claiming that
Christ has only one nature, a Divine nature
Some sects in the Non-Chalcedonian
Orthodox Church claim that they do not reject
the teachings of the Council but were exiled
from the Church for misunderstanding and
political reasons.
Sects in the Non-Chalcedonian Orthodox
Church
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The Oriental Orthodox includes sects of NonChalcedonian Churches in union with each other:
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The Armenian Apostolic Church
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
The British Orthodox Church
The Eritrean Orthodox Church (Tewahedo Church)
The Ethiopian Orthodox Church (Tewahedo Church)
The Malankara Orthodox Church of the East (also known
as the Indian Orthodox Church)
The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (also known as the
Syrian Orthodox Church)
The Malankara Jacobite Syriac Orthodox Church
The Coptic Orthodox Church
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Founded in the First
Century when St. Mark
brought the Gospel to Egypt
Church claims that it is the
fulfillment of the prophesy in
Isaiah 19:19 "In that day
there will be an altar to the
LORD in the midst of the
land of Egypt, and a pillar to
the LORD at its border."
Historical Figures
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St Mark: brought
Christianity to Egypt
Pope of Alexandria: St
Athanasius: wrote
Nicean Creed
Pope Shenouda III
Current Pope (Pictured
Right)
Saints
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The Coptic Orthodox are very devoted to the
Saints, however, they reject any worship of
the saints. They keep their devotion to
Intercessory Prayer.
Icons are very important to their Worship.
Icons are generally images of Christ or the
Saints. There are more icons of Mary than
any other saint.
Icon of Mary
Icon of St Mark
Formal Set of Beliefs
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Nicean Creed: Written at the Council of nicea. It is a
statement of belief and is said at every Mass
Accept the first five ecumenical councils including
the council of Chalcedon
- This is an issue of much controversy in the
Christianity. The Coptic Orthodox Church claims that
they were misunderstood at the Council of
Chalcedon. They say that they were separated from
the Church at this Council for political reasons and
not for Doctrinal reasons.
Fasting
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Fasting is a fundamental part of the Coptic Orthodox Faith.
They fast more than any other Christian Community, fasting 210
days a year.
A Fast is refraining from all animal products (meat, poultry, fish,
milk, eggs, butter, etc.) Also, no food or drink between sunrise
and sunset.
Times of Fast include:
 Pre-Lent Fast: Fast one week before Lent
 Lent: 40 days of fasting
 Holy week
 Advent (Fast of the Nativity),
 Fast of the Apostles
 Fast of the Virgin Saint Mary
 Fast of Nineveh.
Feast Days
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7 Major Feasts
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Christmas
Epiphany
Easter
Palm Sunday
Pentecost
Ascension
Annunciation
POPULATION
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The Coptic Church finds its largest population
in Egypt. Here there are 9 million practicing
Copts as of 1992.
There are also Copts that have emigrated
throughout the world. This number was close
to 1.7 million as of 1992
Sacraments
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Baptism
Confirmation
Eucharist
Penance
Orders
Unction of the Sick
Matrimony: the only sacrament that can not
be preformed during a fasting period
Sacraments of Initiation
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Baptism: performed on newborns within a few
weeks of birth. The baby is totally immersed in water
with the Trinitarian prayer
Confirmation: performed immediately after baptism
Confession: Regular confession with a parish priest
is required to receive the Eucharist. It is encouraged
that a whole family has the same confessor
Eucharist: Eucharist is to be received reguarly at
Sunday Mass
Weddings
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While the Coptics normally do not mix male
and female during the mass, at Weddings
they sit together
Weddings are not to be performed during
fasting seasons
St. Mary’s Coptic Orthodox Church
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St Paul, MN
Founded in 1956
Fr. Youannes F. Tawfik
Egyptian Ethnicity
St Mary’s Church Layout
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Language: Aramaic
Follow the Coptic Orthodox Calendar of Martyrs
Three types of Liturgies:
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The Liturgy according to Saint Basil, Bishop of Caesarea
The Liturgy according to Saint Gregory of Nazianzus,
Bishop of Constantinople
The Liturgy according to Saint Cyril I, the 24th Pope of the
Coptic Church
St Mary’s uses the Liturgy of St Basil
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Scripture is used in readings and chants
Mass is celebrated daily; required on Sunday
Priests are ordained through Holy Orders and
require Seminary. The Pope and Bishops must have
come from a monastic background; they are monks
Mass is celebrated by the priest. Eucharist is the
central part of the mass and is celebrated daily. All
who have completed the sacraments of initiation
may participate, if they have received regular
confession.
Baptismal font is outside of worship place in
separate room
Mass
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Kiss icons
Remove shoes
Males on left and
females on right
Procession with
incense and chanting
Standing and kneeling
Sign of cross
Blessing with incense
Vestments
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Altar behind this grill
Only priests and
servers allowed behind
Grill opens and closes
Holy week outside of
grill
Ornately decorated:
very important
Song
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Men and Women: St Mary’s
all men
Dressed in identical
vestments
Chant in Aramaic
Most of the Liturgy is
Chanted
Choir uses song book
Whole church joins most of
the chant
Cymbals
Song very slow and
contemplative
The End
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The Non-Chalcedonian Orthodox Church