Eighteenth Century
Architecture
Architectural History
ACT 322
Doris Kemp
Topics
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Neo-Classicism
French Neo-Classicism
English Neo-Classicism
Neo-Classicism
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The Palladians of England were among the first
to undertake a thorough study and revival of
architecture from the past
The artistic elite of Europe had renewed an
interest in the architecture of antiquity (Roman
and Greek) in the middle of the eighteenth
century
Became known as the Neo-Classical Period
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New Classical
Neo-Classicism
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Artists and architects of the Neo-Classical
Period gained an accurate understanding of
actual buildings and art works from the past
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Historians also began to thoroughly study these
ancient civilizations
A strong popularity in these antiquities spread
through mainstream society during this period
French Neo-Classicism
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French Neo-Classicism
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Ste.-Genevieve, Paris
Has been known as the Pantheon since the French
Revolution
 Designed by Jacques-Germain Soufflot
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His only major structure
Built on a Greek-cross scheme
 Features five domes
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French Neo-Classicism
http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html
French Neo-Classicism
http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html
French Neo-Classicism
http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html
French Neo-Classicism
http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html
French Neo-Classicism
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Petit Trianon, Versailles
Designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel
 Considered one of the most perfect buildings in
France
 Has an overwhelming theme of dignity and elegance
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French Neo-Classicism
http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html
French Neo-Classicism
http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html
French Neo-Classicism
http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html
French Neo-Classicism
http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html
French Neo-Classicism
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Place de la Concorde, Paris
Constructed from 1755 – 1775
 Constructed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel
 Previously known as Place Louis XV
 A radical departure from the square palaces of the
baroque period
 Features a large courtyard with a giant fountain at
the center
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French Neo-Classicism
http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html
French Neo-Classicism
http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html
French Neo-Classicism
http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html
French Neo-Classicism
http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html
French Neo-Classicism
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Ecole de Chirurgie, Paris
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A school of surgery
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Now known as Ecole de Medecine
Designed by Jacques Gondoin
 Considered a radical neo-classic structure
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A fusion of modern and neo-classicism
French Neo-Classicism
http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html
French Neo-Classicism
http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html
English Neo-Classicism
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George Dance II
Important English neo-classic architect
 Known for a sever manner in style and design
 Important structures
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Newgate Prison, London
 Common Council Chamber, Guildhall, London
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English Neo-Classicism
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Newgate Prison
1768 – 1769
 Quarters were completely windowless for absolute
security
 Charles Dickens described the Entrance Way to this
prison as “One way” and “looking as if they were
made for the express purpose of letting people in,
and never letting them out again.”
 Newgate Prison was eventually demolished in 1902
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English Neo-Classicism
http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html
English Neo-Classicism
http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html
English Neo-Classicism
http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html
English Neo-Classicism
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Common Council Chamber, Guildhall, London
Designed in 1777
 Was later destroyed
 Central space was covered by a pendentive dome
over simple piers and arches
 Combined medievalism and Neo-Classicism
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English Neo-Classicism
http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html
References
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Sullivan, Mary; http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/
http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html
Trachtenburg/Hyman; Architecture: From Prehistory to
Postmodernity
Wodehouse/Moffett; A History of Western Architecture
Eighteenth Century
Architecture
Architectural History
ACT 322
Doris Kemp
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French Neo-Classicism