Out of Many
A History of the American People
Seventh Edition Brief Sixth Edition
Chapter
11
The Growth of
Democracy
1824–1840
Out of Many: A History of the American People, Brief Sixth Edition
John Mack Faragher • Mari Jo Buhle • Daniel Czitrom • Susan H. Armitage
Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
GRAFFITI WALL:
Timeline of US progress and development
• Identify key political, social, and
economical concepts the US endured
through the years of 1787-1824.
• Hint (Whiskey Rebellion, Election of 1800,
Louisiana Purchase, Jeffersonian
Democracy, etc.)
• Be ready to defend your concepts
Key focus question for today’s lecture
How did suffrage expand between 1800 and
1824?
The New Democratic Politics in
North America
Struggles over Popular Rights:
Mexico, the Caribbean, Canada
• 1821
 Mexico independence
• Haiti
 Independence ended slavery / destroyed
sugar industry
• British Caribbean
 Numerous revolts / abolition of slavery /
decline of the sugar industry
Struggles over Popular Rights:
Mexico, the Caribbean, Canada
• 1837
 Revolt by Upper and Lower Canada led to the
union of the two regions to make the Frenchspeaking population a minority.
MAP 11.1 Population Trends: Westward
Expansion, 1830
The Expansion and Limits of
Suffrage
While the population of the United States
more than doubled between 1800 and
1830, the trans-Appalachian population
grew tenfold.
The Expansion and Limits of
Suffrage
• 1800: White, male, property owners could
vote in most states.
• New western states in Union, suffrage
expanded
• 1820: Most of older states had dropped
property qualifications
• 1840: 90 percent of adult white males
could vote
The Expansion and Limits of
Suffrage (cont'd)
• Women and African Americans were
barred from voting.
• Unstable politics challenged democracy
and threatened mob rule.
FIGURE 11.1 Race Exclusions for Suffrage,
1790–1855
Election of 1824
The Election of 1824
• The 1824 election marked an end to the
political truce of the Era of Good Feelings.
Five candidates ran for the presidency.
• Though Andrew Jackson had the most
popular votes, John Quincy Adams won as
a result of the so-called “corrupt bargain.”
• Hostile relations with Congress blocked
many of Adams’s initiatives.
MAP 11.2 The Election of 1824
The New Popular Democratic
Culture
• A more popular form of politics was
emerging.
• Mass rallies, parades and rowdy election
days marked mass politics.
• New state organizations increased political
participation and helped elect Andrew
Jackson president.
• New techniques of mass campaigning
encouraged increases in participation.
Stump Speaking
Print
Revolution
FIGURE 11.2 The Burgeoning of Newspapers
North America and Philadelphia
A Community of Voters Moves from
Deference to Democracy
• William Heighton
 Helped form Philadelphia working men’s party
• Animosity towards the monied aristocracy
 Lack of broad appeal, the party did not last
long and was quickly absorbed by the
Jackson’s Democratic Party.
Democracy takes form
• What does it mean to be democratic?
• How did the election evolve the meaning
and pursuing of democracy?
• Social Democracy (equal status)
• Political Democracy (equal participation)
• Economic Democracy (equality of
opportunity and equality attainment)
STOP
• Assignment explanation
• Be sure to read Chapter 11 using Same
technique as in Chapter 12.
• Pages to read:
 The Jackson Presidency and Changing the
Course of Government: 357-367(stop at
Whigs, Van Buren, and the election of 1836)
The Election of 1828
• In the 1828 election, Jackson triumphed
as his supporters portrayed the contest as
a struggle between democracy and
aristocracy.
• His victory showed the strength of the new
popular democratic culture and system of
national parties made up of a coalition of
the North, South, and West.
MAP 11.3 The Election of 1828
Chapter Focus Questions
• In what ways did Andrew Jackson’s
presidency affirm new democratic
policies?
• How did the major political struggles of the
Jackson years strengthen the executive
branch of government?
Chapter Focus Questions (cont’d)
• How did the basic two-party pattern of
American political democracy take shape?
• How was a distinctive American cultural
identity shaped by writers and artists?
Campaign Propaganda
• This anti-Jackson
“coffin bill” from the
election of 1828
accuses Jackson of
murder because he
ordered three
men executed for
desertion during the
War of 1812.
MAP 11.3 The Election of 1828
FIGURE 11.3 Pre–Civil War Voter Turnout
The Jackson Presidency
( 1828-1836)
President’s Levee, or all Creation Going to the
White House
A Popular President
• Jackson symbolized the personal
advancement that the frontier offered.
• Although elites questioned his
qualifications, his victory at New Orleans
in 1815 made Jackson a popular hero
• His inauguration brought out a mob of
well-wishers who had unruly behavior.
• His popular appeal marked a new,
democratic style of politics.
A Strong Executive
• Jackson was a strong executive who
consulted with the “Kitchen Cabinet,”
largely ignoring his cabinet.
• Clay, Webster and Calhoun were excluded
from Jackson’s inner circle.
• The Peggy Eaton affair underlined
Jackson’s new approach to politics and
brought women’s unofficial influence to an
abrupt end.
A Strong Executive (cont'd)
• Jackson strengthened the presidency by
using the veto more frequently than had all
of his predecessors combined.
The Nation’s Leader Versus
Sectional Spokesmen
• Jackson’s Democrats created a national
coalition that transcended sectional
identity.
• Regional spokespeople included:
 Daniel Webster for the North;
 John C. Calhoun for the South; and
 Henry Clay for the West.
Three Great Sectional Leaders.
The Nation’s Leader Versus
Sectional Spokesmen (cont’d)
• Spokesmen continuing popularity showed
the power of sectional interests.
• Jackson overrode sectional interests and
had national appeal.
The Nullification Crisis
• Constitutional ambiguity, sectional
interests, and the states’ rights issue
caused political controversies.
• The 1828 “Tariff of Abominations” elicited a
strong reaction from South Carolina.
Southerners argued that the tariff was an
unconstitutional effort to enrich the North
at southern expense.
The Nullification Crisis (cont’d)
• John C. Calhoun wrote a defense of the
doctrine of nullification claiming states
could refuse to enforce laws they deemed
unconstitutional.
• South Carolina nullified the 1833 tariff and
threatened to secede.
• Jackson considered South Carolina’s
action treason and passed the Force Bill.
The Nullification Crisis (cont’d)
• Henry Clay engineered a compromise
tariff that ended the threat of civil war.
Changing the Course of Government
MAP 11.4 Southern Indian Cessions and
Removals, 1830s
Indian Removal
• Jackson embraced the policy of Indian
cession of their lands and removal west of
the Mississippi River.
• The five civilized tribes of the South were
most affected.
• Even though the Cherokee had adopted
white ways and accepted white culture,
Jackson pressed for their removal.
Indian Removal (cont'd)
• Jackson defied the Supreme Court ruling
in favor of the Cherokee.
• The Cherokee removal was called the
“Trail of Tears.”
• The removal was strongly opposed by
northerners.
• Women’s benevolent societies surprised
many in Congress with their activism and
petitions.
Internal Improvements
• Jackson argued that federal funding for
infrastructure was unconstitutional.
• The veto of the Maysville Road Bill was a
slap at Henry Clay as much as a policy
statement.
• Without federal funding the initiatives
passed to private developers who then
passed it to the states.
Internal Improvements (cont'd)
• States provided more funding for roads,
canals and railroads than the federal
government.
Federal and State Support for
Private Enterprise
• The Supreme Court under Marshall
fostered economic growth by:
 federal power over interstate commerce; and
 economic competition by denying
monopolies.
• State laws enabled businesses to protect
themselves by granting charters of
incorporation.
Federal and State Support for
Private Enterprise (cont'd)
• Greater economic certainty helped bring
about the Market Revolution.
The Bank War
• 1816: the Second Bank of the United
States—quasi-private
• The Second Bank acted as a currency
stabilizer by:
 growth of strong and stable financial interest;
and
 curbing less stable and irresponsible ones.
• Eastern merchants found the bank a
useful institution.
The Bank War (cont'd)
• Western farmers and speculators feared
the Bank represented a moneyed elite.
• Jackson vetoed the bill when Clay and
Webster pushed for early re-chartering.
Jackson’s Reelection in 1832
• With the Bank recharter as the main issue,
in the election of 1832 Jackson soundly
defeated Henry Clay.
• After his victory, Jackson withdrew federal
deposits and placed them in “pet” banks.
• Jackson claimed that he was the direct
representative of the people and could act
regardless of Congressional opinion.
Whigs, Van Buren, and
the Panic of 1837
• The Bank called in commercial loans,
causing a recession.
• Jackson’s Specie Circular made the
situation worse.
• Jackson’s opponents founded an
opposition party—the Whigs.
• The new party lost the 1836 election to
Martin Van Buren.
Whigs, Van Buren, and
the Panic of 1837 (cont'd)
• The Panic led to depression, and a dismal
term for Van Buren.
Terrible effects of the Panic of 1837 on ordinary
people—bank failures, unemployment,
drunkenness, and destitution
“King Andrew.”
The Second American Party System
Whigs and Democrats
• Both parties were coalitions of regional
interests seeking a national majority.
• Democrats:
 Party spoke for Jeffersonian democracy,
expansion, and the freedom of the “common
man” from interference of the government of
financial monopolies
 It’s power base lay in the rural South and
West and among northern urban workers
Whigs and Democrats (cont’d)
• Whigs:
 Heirs to Federalism, they favored strong role
for national government in economy and
supported active social reform
 It’s power base lay in the North and Old
Northwest among voters who benefited from
increased commercialization and among
southern planters and urban merchants
The Campaign of 1840
• In the election of 1840 Whigs portrayed
their candidate, William Henry Harrison, as
a military hero and man of the people and
attacked Van Buren as an out of touch
elitist.
• In reality, Van Buren had risen from a
humble background.
The Campaign of 1840 (cont'd)
• The Whigs won a sweeping electoral
victory in a campaign with 80 percent voter
turnout.
MAP 11.5 The Election of 1840
The Whig Victory Turns to Loss:
The Tyler Presidency
• The Whig triumph was short-lived as
Harrison died a month after his
inauguration. Vice-President John Tyler
assumed office.
• A former Democrat, Tyler vetoed a series
of bills calling for a new Bank of the United
States, tariffs, and internal improvements.
• The Whigs were only able to win one more
election, in 1848.
American Arts and Letters
Popular Cultures and the Spread of
the Written Word
• The print revolution had far reaching
effects beyond politics.
• Newspapers and almanacs fostered
popular culture.
• Serious fiction, lurid tales of scandal and
dime novels appealed to different
audiences.
Popular Cultures and the Spread of
the Written Word (cont'd)
• The invention of the telegraph sped
communications, widening horizons and
expanding communities.
Creating a National American
Culture
• An intellectual movement was stimulated
by eastern societies and journals.
• In the West, spottier culture led to a
growing widening gap in economic and
intellectual horizons
• Washington Irving, James Fennimore
Cooper, and especially Ralph Waldo
Emerson created a distinctly American
culture.
Kindred Spirits
Artists and Builders
• Artists such as Albert Bierstedt and
George Caleb Bingham drew upon
dramatic themes from the American
landscape and lifestyles.
• Neoclassical remained the architectural
style for public buildings.
• Balloon frame construction enabled
Americans to build homes at a rapid clip.
Artists and Builders (cont'd)
• Housing for the common man became
cheaper and more accessible.
Conclusion
The Growth of Democracy,
1824 - 1840
• Jacksonian Democracy and the Second
Party System led to major changes in
politics as well as a wider political
community.
• Sectionalism and nationalism continued to
create unresolved conflicts.
• The economic, political and social
divergence of North and South increased
in the Age of Jackson.
Chronology
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Chapter Focus Questions (cont`d)