THE SCOTTISH WARS OF
INDEPENDENCE
Alexander III
The Scottish Wars of
Independence
• 1286…. ALEXANDER III was King of
Scots.
• Heir….. He had no son to take over after
he died.
• YOLANDE….Young French Princess.
Alexander hoped for a son.
MARCH 18th, 1286…Alexander died on his
way from Edinburgh to Kinghorn.
EARLY POEM
This is the earliest known piece of Scottish verse:
When Alexander our king was dead,
That scotland led in love and le
(law)
Away with sons of ale and bread
(plenty)
Of wine and wax, of game and glee.
Our gold was changed into lead.
Christ, born into Virginity,
Succour Scotland and remedy
(help)
That stood is in perplexity.
The unknown writer of these lines was expressing
how people felt in Scotland after the death of their
King. Instead of enjoying peace and prosperity they
had to face war and poverty.
The Death Of Alexander
HEIR TO THE THRONE…was his GRANDDAUGHTER.
MARGARET.
LADY OF SCOTLAND.
MAID OF NORWAY.
She died in the ORKNEY ISLANDS.
Now there is no heir to the throne.
The Problem of the Succession.
• EDWARD I…. Was King of England.
LONGSHANKS
HAMMER OF THE SCOTS.
Edward of England is asked to
chose the next king.
He chooses JOHN BALLIOL.
John Balliol becomes King
Nick-name………TOOM TABARD.
Empty coat or puppet King.
Edward wants Scots to fight for
him in France…BUT
The Auld Alliance….an agreement between the
Scots and the French.
King John refused to fight for Edward.
Edward I. invaded Scotland.
Defeated Scots at Dunbar.
Takes King John prisoner and puts him in a
dungeon.
Edward I appoints Englishmen
to run Scotland.
Hugh de Cressingham is
TREASURER.
All wool to be sent to ENGLAND.
This would cause great hardship for
the SCOTS.
ANDREW de MORAY began to fight
the ENGLISH.
WILLIAM WALLACE.
Wallace killed HAZELRIG.the
Governor of LANARK.
Wallace is OUTLAWED.
REWARD…dead or alive.
A price on his head.
Wallace joins with ANDREW de MORAY.
Wallace and de Moray attack the
English when they have the
chance.
They captured castles and towns from
the English.
More and more men joined them.
Edward I was angry.
He sent an army north to defeat the
rebel Scots.
th
11 .
September 1297
THE BATTLE OF STIRLING
BRIDGE
• The English were led by the EARL OF
SURREY and CRESSINGHAM.
• Wallace and De Moray divided the English
army in two and destroyed them
How the troops met
The BATTLE OF FALKIRK
1298
• Edward 1 led the English this time.
• Wallace formed his men into giant
SCHILTRONS (spear formations.
• Edward used arrows and knights to smash
the Schiltrons.
• Wallace was defeated and had to go into
hiding.
• Again there was a price on his head.
The Death of Wallace.
• Wallace put on trial for murder and treason.
• His punishment was HANGING
DRAWING AND QUARTERING.
• He was dragged through streets for four
miles.
• He was HANGED until nearly dead and cut
down.
• He was DRAWN which dislocated every
joint in his body and cut down.
THE DEATH OF WALLACE
• He was DISEMBOWELLED which means his
•
•
•
•
•
stomach ripped open.
His liver taken out and burnt before his eyes.
Then his head cut off.
And his body quartered.
His head was put on London Bridge as a warning
to others.
His body displayed in Newcastle ,Berwick, Perth
and Stirling.
Robert Bruce becomes KING
• Bruce and Comyn made a deal .
• Comyn betrayed Bruce to Edward 1.
• Bruce stabs Comyn in Greyfriars church in
Dumfries.
His friends say “ Weel mak siccur”.
•
• The Pope EXCOMMUNICATES Bruce.
Bruce has many enemies.
• Edward 1 and the English.
• John Comyn’s family and friends.
• The Pope and the Catholic Church.
• 1306 Bruce has himself crowned King at Scone.
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