THE SCOTTISH WARS OF INDEPENDENCE Alexander III The Scottish Wars of Independence • 1286…. ALEXANDER III was King of Scots. • Heir….. He had no son to take over after he died. • YOLANDE….Young French Princess. Alexander hoped for a son. MARCH 18th, 1286…Alexander died on his way from Edinburgh to Kinghorn. EARLY POEM This is the earliest known piece of Scottish verse: When Alexander our king was dead, That scotland led in love and le (law) Away with sons of ale and bread (plenty) Of wine and wax, of game and glee. Our gold was changed into lead. Christ, born into Virginity, Succour Scotland and remedy (help) That stood is in perplexity. The unknown writer of these lines was expressing how people felt in Scotland after the death of their King. Instead of enjoying peace and prosperity they had to face war and poverty. The Death Of Alexander HEIR TO THE THRONE…was his GRANDDAUGHTER. MARGARET. LADY OF SCOTLAND. MAID OF NORWAY. She died in the ORKNEY ISLANDS. Now there is no heir to the throne. The Problem of the Succession. • EDWARD I…. Was King of England. LONGSHANKS HAMMER OF THE SCOTS. Edward of England is asked to chose the next king. He chooses JOHN BALLIOL. John Balliol becomes King Nick-name………TOOM TABARD. Empty coat or puppet King. Edward wants Scots to fight for him in France…BUT The Auld Alliance….an agreement between the Scots and the French. King John refused to fight for Edward. Edward I. invaded Scotland. Defeated Scots at Dunbar. Takes King John prisoner and puts him in a dungeon. Edward I appoints Englishmen to run Scotland. Hugh de Cressingham is TREASURER. All wool to be sent to ENGLAND. This would cause great hardship for the SCOTS. ANDREW de MORAY began to fight the ENGLISH. WILLIAM WALLACE. Wallace killed HAZELRIG.the Governor of LANARK. Wallace is OUTLAWED. REWARD…dead or alive. A price on his head. Wallace joins with ANDREW de MORAY. Wallace and de Moray attack the English when they have the chance. They captured castles and towns from the English. More and more men joined them. Edward I was angry. He sent an army north to defeat the rebel Scots. th 11 . September 1297 THE BATTLE OF STIRLING BRIDGE • The English were led by the EARL OF SURREY and CRESSINGHAM. • Wallace and De Moray divided the English army in two and destroyed them How the troops met The BATTLE OF FALKIRK 1298 • Edward 1 led the English this time. • Wallace formed his men into giant SCHILTRONS (spear formations. • Edward used arrows and knights to smash the Schiltrons. • Wallace was defeated and had to go into hiding. • Again there was a price on his head. The Death of Wallace. • Wallace put on trial for murder and treason. • His punishment was HANGING DRAWING AND QUARTERING. • He was dragged through streets for four miles. • He was HANGED until nearly dead and cut down. • He was DRAWN which dislocated every joint in his body and cut down. THE DEATH OF WALLACE • He was DISEMBOWELLED which means his • • • • • stomach ripped open. His liver taken out and burnt before his eyes. Then his head cut off. And his body quartered. His head was put on London Bridge as a warning to others. His body displayed in Newcastle ,Berwick, Perth and Stirling. Robert Bruce becomes KING • Bruce and Comyn made a deal . • Comyn betrayed Bruce to Edward 1. • Bruce stabs Comyn in Greyfriars church in Dumfries. His friends say “ Weel mak siccur”. • • The Pope EXCOMMUNICATES Bruce. Bruce has many enemies. • Edward 1 and the English. • John Comyn’s family and friends. • The Pope and the Catholic Church. • 1306 Bruce has himself crowned King at Scone.