The Cold War
1945-1960
Chapter 25
What were the causes, main
events, and effects of the early
Cold War?
The Cold War Begins
Section 1

How did U.S. leaders respond to the threat of
Soviet expansion in Europe?

Vocabulary:
-satellite state
-Cold War
-iron curtain
-Truman Doctrine
-George F. Kennan
containment
Marshall Plan
Berlin airlift
NATO
Warsaw Pact
Standards
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SSUSH20
The student will analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold
War on the United States.
Element: SSUSH20.a
Describe the creation of the Marshall Plan, U.S. commitment to Europe, the
Truman Doctrine, and the origins and implications of the containment policy.
Element: SSUSH20.b
Explain the impact of the new communist regime in China, the outbreak of
the Korean War, and how these events contributed to the rise of Senator
Joseph McCarthy.
Element: SSUSH20.c
Describe the Cuban Revolution, the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban missile
crisis.
Element: SSUSH20.d
Describe the Vietnam War, the Tet offensive, and growing opposition to the
war.
The Cold War Begins
Roots of the Cold War
Main Idea: By the end of World War II, the relationship between the United
States and the Soviet Union had fallen apart due to the fear that the Soviet
Union was attempting world domination.
Meeting the Soviet Challenge
Main Idea: At President Truman’s urging, Congress aided Greece, Turkey,
and other countries struggling against communist movements.
Containing Soviet Expansion
Main Idea: George F. Kennan presented a policy called containment, with
the goal of keeping communism within its current borders.
The Cold War Heats Up
Main Idea: When the Soviets blockaded Allied-controlled West Berlin, The
United Sates and Britain used a massive airlift to fly supplies into the city,
showing how far they would go to fight communism.
American and Soviet Systems
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o
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American System
Capitalist democracy
Free elections
Economic and
religious freedom
Private property
Respect for individual
rights
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o
Soviet System
Dictatorship
Communist Party
made all economic,
political and military
decisions
No religious worship
No private property
No freedom of speech
Cold War

Name given to the competition between the
U.S. and the Soviet Union
 Political and economic conflict and military
tensions
 Lasted nearly 50 years, until the collapse of
the Soviet Union in 1991
NOTE TAKING
Reading Skill: Contrast
President Truman
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April 12, 1945,
Roosevelt dies
In the Congress for 10
years
Vice President for 83
days
Took a harder line
toward Stalin than
Roosevelt had
Yalta Conference
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February, 1945
 Poland – Stalin
agreed to let Poles
choose own
government
 Creation of United
Nations
Potsdam Conference
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July, 1945
U.S.S.R. wanted $10 billion
from Germany in reparations
Allies said “No!”
Agreed to divide Germany
into four zones
U.S. pushed for Polish
elections as well as Eastern
Europe
Truman received word that
the atom bomb had been
tested
NOTE TAKING
Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence
Iron Curtain
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Stalin predicted the
triumph of communism
over capitalism
Cominform: Soviet
agency to direct
Communist parties in
the world
Winston Churchill:
“…an iron curtain has
descended across the
Continent.”
Iron Curtain
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“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic,
an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.
Behind that line lie all the capitals of…Central and
Eastern Europe…The Communist parties, which
were very small in all these Eastern States of
Europe, have been raised to pre-eminence and
power far beyond their numbers and are seeking
everywhere to obtain totalitarian control”
--”Iron Curtain” speech
Winston Churchill, March 5, 1946
Satellite Nations
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Soviets lost 20 million people during WWII
Soviets wanted to protect its interests, so Stalin
established satellite nations (countries subject to
Soviet domination)
Poland, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary,
Romania, and East Germany became satellite
nations by 1948
Yugoslavia maintained a degree of independence
from the U.S.S.R.
Tito (Josip Broz) was the communist dictator of
Yugoslavia; refused to take orders from Stalin
Containment

Idea from George Kennan, an American
diplomat stationed in Moscow; West needed
intelligent long-range policies
 Policy recognized the possibility that Eastern
Europe was lost to communism
 U.S. to resist formation of Communist
governments elsewhere in the world
Truman Doctrine
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Great Britain gave
world leadership to U.S.
1947 declaration that
the U.S. would support
nations that were being
threatened by
communism
Americans provided aid
to Greece and Turkey;
Congress provided
$400 million, plus
military bases
Marshall Plan
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Marshall Plan: called
for the nations of
Europe to draw up a
program for economic
recovery from the war.
The U.S. would support
them with financial aid
of $13 billion
Hoped to create strong
democracies and open
new markets for
American goods
TRANSPARENCY
The Cost of Containment
CHART
Shipments Financed by the Marshall Plan
Berlin Airlift

West Berlin: capitalist
and democratic
 East Berlin: communist
 Many fled to West
Berlin
 Stalin blockaded the
city
 Supplies brought in by
plane
 Stalin lifted the
blockade in May 1949
INFOGRAPHIC
Berlin Airlift
NATO
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North Atlantic Treaty
Organization
“association of
democratic peaceloving states” to defend
Western Europe
Collective security:
mutual military
assistance; “an armed
attack against one or
more of them…shall be
considered an attack
against them all.”
Warsaw Pact

1955, Soviet Union
formed a military
alliance with its satellite
nations in Eastern
Europe except for
Yugoslavia
COMPARING
VIEWPOINTS
What Will Happen to Postwar Europe?
PM
TRANSPARENCY
Progress Monitoring Transparency
The Korean War
Section 2
 How
did President Truman use the
power of the presidency to limit the
spread of communism in East Asia?
 Vocabulary:
-Jiang Jieshi
-Mao Zedong
-38th parallel
Douglas MacArthur
limited war
SEATO
The Korean War
Communists Gain Control of China
Main Idea: Americans were shocked when communists won the Civil
War in China and greatly expanded communist control in the world.
Americans Fight in Korea
Main Idea: After communist-controlled North Korea invaded South
Korea, the United States sent military aid to South Korea, which
ultimately resulted in a stalemate.
The Korean War Has Lasting Effects
Main Idea: President Eisenhower’s threat of nuclear weapons
convinced the communists to sign a cease-fire, but there was no clear
victory in the war.
Civil War in China
Jiang Jieshi – leader
of Nationalist
government
 Corruption –
diverted American
aid
 Generals would not
fight
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Mao Zedong –
Communist rebel
 Promised to feed
the people
 Defeated Jiang in
1948, with Jiang
fleeing to Taiwan
 Established the
People’s Republic of
China
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NOTE TAKING
Reading Skill: Categorize
TRANSPARENCY
Political Cartoons: The Korean War
PM
TRANSPARENCY
Progress Monitoring Transparency
Americans Fight in Korea
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Korea: after WWII, Korea divided into two
zones – North and South; Yalu River divided
China and North Korea
South Korea was democratic (pro-American)
North Korea- communistic government
June, 1950, North Koreans invaded South
Korea by crossing over the 38th parallel
USSR boycotted the Security Council
UN called on members to defend South
Korea
Douglas MacArthur
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Fought in WWI and
WWII
Commander of
Americans in Asia in
WWII
Controlled Japan after
war, establishing a
democracy
War
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North Koreans swept through S. Korea with
only area near Pusan unconquered
Defended Pusan; MacArthur invaded Inchon
to cut North Korea’s supply lines
N. Koreans retreated back across the 38th
parallel
UN troops neared Chinese border
“Home by Christmas” offensive
Chinese Attack
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Chinese pour over the
border in November, 1950
Push UN forces back into S.
Korea
Stalemate
Disagreed with Truman on
limited war
Letter to Joseph Martin
Fired by Truman in 1951
War dragged on until 1953
53,000 American dead
DECISION POINT
Should the United States Invade China?
Dwight Eisenhower
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Elected 1952
promising to end
the Korean War
 Careful not to start a
war with USSR over
Eastern Europe
 Continued policy of
containment
 Ended the Korean
War with a ceasefire in 1953
Results of the Korean War
 Two
Koreas remain divided at about the
38th parallel; North Korea is communist
and South Korea is a democracy
 Set a precedent of Presidents
committing U.S. troops to battle
without a declaration of war
 Increased military spending
 Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
(SEATO)
Domestic Politics and Policies
Presidents Truman and Eisenhower pursued different styles to
meet the challenges of the postwar period.
QUICK STUDY
Korean War's Impact on America
The Cold War Expands
Section 3

What methods did the U.S. use in its global
struggle against the Soviet Union?
 Vocabulary:
-arms race
Nikita Khrushchev
-John Foster Douglas nationalize
-Eisenhower Doctrine Suez crisis
-massive retaliation Eisenhower Doctrine
-brinkmanship
CIA
-mutually assured
NASA
destruction
The Cold War Expands
The Arms Race Heightens Tensions
Main Idea: When the United States discovered that the Soviet
Union had set off an atomic bomb, an arms race between the two
nations started as each developed increasingly powerful nuclear
weapons.
Eisenhower Introduces New Policies
Main Idea: Eisenhower favored a defense policy of stockpiling
nuclear weapons so that the United States could threaten enemies
with the use of overwhelming force.
The Cold War Goes Global
Main Idea: Tensions between the United States and the Soviet
Union led to conflicts in countries throughout the world.
Continued…
Communist Advances
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Soviets test an atomic
bomb
U.S. develops hydrogen
bomb
China is taken over by
Mao Zedong after he
defeats Jiang Jieshi in a
civil war; Beijing falls to
the Communists in 1949
Hydrogen Bomb
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Truman ordered the
production of a
hydrogen bomb
 Tested in 1952
 Oppenheimer and
Einstein were
opposed
 Knew that Soviets
would develop it;
arms race
Arms Race
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Struggle to gain
weapons superiority
over the USSR
Tested the hydrogen
bomb at Bikini
Island
Nuclear Arsenals
Brinkmanship
ICBMs
CHART
The Arms Race
NOTE TAKING
Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas
INFOGRAPHIC
Domestic Uses of Cold War Technology
Eisenhower’s New Policies
Foster Dulles – Secretary of State
 Policy of massive retaliation
 Brinkmanship - “You have to take some
chances for peace, just as you take
chances in war.”
 Policy saved money by focusing on
nuclear power, not conventional forces
 John
Stalin’s Death
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Stalin died March 5,
1953
 Nikita Khrushchev
became new leader
 Death of Stalin
eased tensions
between the U.S.
and the U.S.S.R.
Iron Curtain Uprisings
– workers rioted and won
greater control of government
 Hungary – Huge demonstrations
crushed by Soviet troops; many
executed
 Poland
Suez Crisis 1956
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Nasser of Egypt
seized the Britishowned Suez Canal.
 British and French
attacked Egypt to
regain the canal.
 Eisenhower got
them to withdraw,
leaving Egypt with
the canal
Eisenhower Doctrine
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Stated that the U.S.
would aid any
country in the
Middle East
requesting aid
against Aggression
(Communistinspired)
 Sent troops to
Lebanon to put
down a revolt
Middle East
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Palestine: many
Jews fled there
 I948 Jews
proclaimed nation of
Israel
 War between Israel
and Arabs
 U.S. backed Israel;
USSR backed Arabs
Iran
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1952 pro-communist
leader controlled
Iran
 1953 U.S. organized
his overthrow by the
CIA and restored the
Shah of Iran
 Created long-term
resentment against
the U.S.
TRANSPARENCY
Cold War Initiatives
Sputnik
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First artificial
satellite to orbit
Earth
 U.S. first satellite
crashed
 Soviets shot down
U-2 plane
 Military-industrial
complex
First Satellite
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Soviets launched
Sputnik October
1957
 Housed a 1-watt
radio transmitter
 Powered by three
silver-zinc batteries
 Transformed the
world
From Sputnik to the
International Space Station
Sputnik
The International Space
Station
First Man in Space
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Yuri Gagarin in
Vostok 1
 April 12, 1961
 First to orbit the
Earth
 Parachuted to Earth
First American in Space
 John
Glenn
 Three orbits
 February 20,
1962
Apollo Program
 Moon
program
 Apollo 11 July 20, 1969
 Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walk
on the Moon
Space Shuttle
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Program began in
1972
 Reusable space
craft
 Two have been lost
Space Station
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Joint program
between the United
States and Russia
 Weight – 404,069
pounds
 Dimensions – 240
feet by 90 feet
Future of Space Travel
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Since 1961, more
than 400 humans in
space
 Working to improve
life on Earth
 Future – extend life
beyond Earth
Domino Theory
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Belief that if one country fell to the
Communists, its neighbors would follow
Vietnam, a French colony; French fought Ho
Chi Minh, Vietnamese communist ruler
U.S. provided military aid to France
French lost in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu
Vietnam divided into Communist North and
anti-Communist South
U.S. provided aid to South
Latin America
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Rio Pact: regional
defense alliance
with 18 other
nations
 Organization of
American States
(OAS) formed to
increase
cooperation
Cuba
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1959 Fidel Castro
overthrow Batista, a
corrupt dictator
He established a
Communist government
Castro seized American
property
Exports to Cuba halted
and diplomatic ties
ended
PM
TRANSPARENCY
Progress Monitoring Transparency
Cold War at Home
Section 4
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How did fear of domestic communism affect
American society during the Cold War?
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Vocabulary:
-Red Scare
Alger Hiss
-Smith Act
Joseph R. McCarthy
-McCarthyism
HUAC
-Hollywood Ten
blacklist
-Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
The Cold War at Home
Worrying About Communists at Home
Main Idea: Americans began to fear that communists in the United States
were working for the Soviet Union, and Congress started investigations of
potential communists.
Spy Cases Worry Americans
Main Idea: Spy trials attracted public attention and drew awareness to the
threat of communist agents working against the United States. Alger
Hiss’s case and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg trial were two controversial
cases that received national interest
McCarthy Uses Ruthless Tactics
Main Idea: Senator McCarthy became chairman of an investigations
committee against potential communists, were he spent years making
reckless accusations that often discredited people.
ANALYZE
Political Cartoons: Red Scare or Red Smear
HUAC – Second Red Scare
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Smith Act: unlawful to
overthrow the government
House Un-American
Activities Committee
Charged Hollywood
personalities with being
members of the Communist
party
Hollywood Ten – Cited for
contempt of Congress and
served jail terms ranging
from six months to a year
Blacklist – list of people
whom employers agreed not
to hire
NOTE TAKING
Reading Skill: Identify Causes and Effects
McCarran-Walter Act
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Set a quota system for countries; this system
discriminated against immigrants from Asia
and Southern and Central Europe to keep
communists out of the U.S.
 Vetoed by Truman, but Congress passed it
over the President’s veto
Spy Cases
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Alger Hiss: convicted of
lying in a slander case
against Whittaker
Chambers
Julius and Ethel
Rosenberg: accused of
passing atomic secrets
to the Soviets; executed
in 1953
NOTE TAKING
Reading Skill: Compare and Contrast
TRANSPARENCY
The Red Scare
McCarthy Era
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Joseph McCarthyRepublican Senator
Indicated that State
Dept was full of
communists
Accused Sec. of State
George Marshall
Said Army full of
commies in 1954
Hearings were televised
and Americans saw him
as a bully
PM
TRANSPARENCY
Progress Monitoring Transparency
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