COMPARE AND CONTRAST
THE DIFFERENT GROUPS OF
PEOPLE WHO MIGRATED TO
THE WEST AND DESCRIBE THE
PROBLEMS THEY EXPERIENCED
Michael Quiñones, NBCT
www.socialstudiesguy.com
NCSCOS OBJECTIVE 4.01/Unit 14
Macro Concepts
Micro Concepts
Migration-mass movement of people
to a new location.
Citizenship-the status of having
rights, freedoms and
responsibilities within a country
Change-transformation of an
object, place or person.
Environment-Location affected by
people, animals or nature.
Status-the rank or level of a person
based on wealth.
Conflict-problem or issue that is
controversial and can cause
fighting without compromise.
Ethnicity-a group a person belongs
to based on family, origin and
heritage [language and culture
are linked].
Gold Rush



Gold was discovered by prospector James Marshall in early 1848. At first the precious metal was
found in streams and river beds using primitive methods such as panning. Later more advanced
mechanized methods were used to quarry entire mountainsides for gold.
After news of Marshall’s discovery spread thousands of men journeyed to strike it rich in California.
Many foreigners from China and South America came to prospect for gold but were victimized by
anti-immigrant laws and violence.
Eventually over 300,000 people came to the region forming boomtowns and settlements that later
expanded such as in San Francisco, California.
Comstock Lode



After Gold Fever had swept the West. Henry Comstock mistakenly discovered enormous
deposits of pure silver in sticky, blue clay as he was prospecting for gold in the Nevada
territory in 1858 spurring a sliver rush in 1859. Prospectors were called the ’59ers.
News of silver deposits caused the population of Nevada to explode and it was soon after
admitted as a state.
The profits reaped from the silver mines were useful in funding the U.S. Civil War.
Homestead Act



Law passed by President Lincoln in 1862 to encourage
Western expansion.
For $10 individuals could apply for a land grant [free
land]. Freed blacks and poor whites often took
advantage of this. Former Confederates were excluded.
Lots of 160 acres were available if homesteaders
improved the land by developing and farming it. After 5
years homesteaders owned the property outright.
Life for U.S. Settlers on the Great Plains





Life for settlers on the Great Plains was extremely harsh and challenging.
During summer months temperatures were regularly greater than 100 degrees.
During the winters extreme cold temperatures and severe snow storms were frequent.
Timber/Lumber was very rare on the prairies so settlers built sodhouses out of tightly
packed blocks of earth and sod [grass]. The threat of destruction from fire was ever
present during the dry summer months.
Occasional swarms of grasshoppers/locusts could also destroy crops within hours.
Morrill Land Grant Act




In 1862 and 1890 laws were passed to grant [give/gift] land to create public colleges.
Most states received money to start “state colleges” such as Penn State, Michigan State
and N.C. State [there were many, many more].
These colleges and universities expanded the existing knowledge of science and
agriculture throughout the United States.
In general, opportunities for higher education were expanded beyond the wealthy and
elite to previously uneducated citizens.
Oklahoma Land Rush




In 1889 thousands of Americans “rushed” to claim land in the Oklahoma territory when the U.S.
Government opened settlement there.
Within months the population went from 100s to over 100,000.
Many people illegally entered the area “too soon” and hid out beyond the territory’s border
to scout the best land tracts [The people were known as Sooners].
After Oklahoma was opened officially the best land was quickly taken by the Sooners.
The Grange

A united group of American farmers
who came together to fight for their
rights and defend their economic
interests. This group of farmers called
itself the Grange.

Farmers believed they were being
exploited by railroads.

Railroads were charging huge fees to
transport farmers’ crops and livestock.

The Grange wanted the U.S.
Government to step in regulate the
railroads.
Money Policy




To strengthen the U.S. economy several monetary policies were attempted.
Greenbacks-During the U.S. Civil War with the lack of gold the Union [and
Confederacy] issued paper currency that promised to pay the face value [$5,
$10, $50, etc] with “to the bearer on demand.” The government was asking
people to trust it to pay gold later on.
Gold Standard-This policy forced the U.S. government to issue only the
amount of paper money the U.S. had in gold reserves in the U.S. Treasury.
Bimetallism-This policy allowed the U.S. government to issue paper money
based on gold and silver reserves.
Unique Experiences of: Chinese immigrants

Starting in the 1840s Chinese workers [sometimes called coolies] traveled overseas
to the Americas, Europe and Africa to work [mostly men].

The work was mostly hard, strenuous labor and for very low pay.

In the United States the laborers built the Transcontinental Railroads.

Jealousy and suspicion from other Americans was common because Chinese often
supplanted other workers particularly the Irish.
Unique Experiences of: Women




Women were at least half of the population in the U.S. during the 1880s and 1890s.
Unfortunately, because of the culture of the times, women were often considered to be second
class citizens with fewer legal rights than men.
The types of work women performed was often limited to domestic work [home cleaning,
sewing/textiles production and farm work].
Single [unmarried, divorced or widowed] women sometimes engaged in illegal or “immoral”
types of work such as saloon girls in brothels [houses of prostitution] and bar keeping.
Unique Experiences of: African-Americans





After passage of the 13th Amendment African-Americans were free to work where they could
find employment.
Unfortunately racism and discriminatory laws [Jim Crow] prevented freed blacks from
achieving equal opportunities.
The Homestead Act allowed blacks to go West and own land.
Poor freed blacks who remained in the South often were Sharecroppers who were exploited
by landlords and remained poor.
Many Southern blacks went North during the Great Migration for job opportunities in factories.
Unique Experiences of: Irish immigrants

During the 1840s millions of Irish fled their homeland due to the Potato Famine.

Most of these emigrants came to the United States seeking jobs.

The earliest immigrants took jobs building the railroads.

Many riots between Irish and Chinese workers broke out over labor competition.

During the U.S. Civil many Irishmen protesting against conscription and participated in antidraft riots using extreme violence.






One of the most disgraceful events in U.S. military history.
Cheyenne and Arapaho Nation peoples were mostly friendly with U.S. citizens near their
territories.
In 1864 the U.S. Civil War was still being fought and Union armies were always on high alert
to possible threats.
The Cheyenne Chief, Black Kettle, approached the U.S. Army post, Fort Lyon, in Colorado for a
meeting and was told to wait.
U.S. Army Colonel Chivington may have misunderstood the situation or felt threatened by the
Chief.
The end result was the slaughter and mutilation by the U.S. Army of over 100 Native
Americans including women and children.
Sand Creek Massacre
Battle of Little Bighorn




One of the most embarrassing defeats in U.S. Military
history.
During a patrol Lt. Colonel George Custer encountered
a massive camp of Lakota and Cheyenne people.
Custer launched an attack in three separate directions
underestimating the Natives.
Custer and all of his troops but one were killed as a
result of the leadership of Lakota Chief Sitting Bull.
Buffalo Soldiers
One of the first all black army units in the United States.
 The 10th Cavalry Regiment was formed in 1866 to fight in the U.S.
Civil War.
 The soldiers received their nickname from the Native tribes they
fought.
 According to historians it was because of both their dark skin and
dark curly hair that similar to the buffalo. Also the ferocity with
which they fought.

Wounded Knee Massacre
The U.S. Government had banned the Ghost Dance for all Native
tribes.
 The Ghost Dance was when Natives led by a Chief or spiritual leader
would call the spirits to help them.
 The U.S. Government believed the dance threatened peace with the
natives.
 On December 29, 1890 at Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota over
150 Sioux were killed by U.S. Army troops after they tried to disarm
the Sioux during a ceremony.

Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce





Chief Joseph was the leader of the Nez Perce Nation
located in what is now Oregon.
U.S. Forces attempted to remove the Nez Perce Nation to
a reservation in Idaho.
His people refused and fought the U.S. Army.
Under Joseph’s leadership the Nez Perce were able to
resist by using effective military tactics such as baited
ambushes.
Eventually the Nez Perce fled to Canada to avoid U.S.
Forces but later returned and accepted life on the
reservation.
Reservation System and the Dawes Act

In 1891 Senator Henry Dawes led the passage of the Dawes Act
[a.k.a. the Dawes Severalty Act].

To solve the Indian Problem land was reserved [set aside] to
remove them from their ancestral lands.

Vast areas called reservations were created at different locations
in order to make room for American settlers on ancestral “Indian”
lands. “Indians” were required to live on these new reservations.
Frederick Jackson Turner and Helen Hunt Jackson

Two American authors who chronicled [wrote about] the effects of Western
expansion were Frederick Jackson Turner and Helen Hunt Jackson.

Turner explained that settlement of the Western Frontier was important but
would eventually lead to overseas expansion.

Jackson wrote a book called A Century of Dishonor that criticized the
injustice and mistreatment of Native-Americans by the United
States.
Image Sources

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award97/ndfahtml/hult_sod_02.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sod_house_1901.gif

http://history.howstuffworks.com/american-history/history-of-nevada2.htm

http://history.howstuffworks.com/american-history/homestead-law.htm

http://perlmortgage.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/homestead.jpg

http://sfist.com/2009/02/02/today_in_san_francisco_history_-_ey.php

http://questgarden.com/29/87/8/100328154314/index.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Comstock_miners.jpeg

http://www.prophecynewsheadlines.com/2008/11/19/swarms-of-locusts-spread-across-australia/

http://www.today.colostate.edu/story.aspx?id=2662

http://www.duetsblog.com/2009/04/

http://brodsky.pbworks.com/f/immigrantschinois_1900%5B1%5D.jpg

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_wL-YTMevzU0/TPN1h5ktoxI/AAAAAAAAABU/iXImzqz9ypE/s1600/chinese-railroad-workers.jpg

http://www.jimandellen.org/trollope/HollSeamstresses.jpg

http://cache2.artprintimages.com/p/LRG/29/2944/JBLRD00Z/art-print/charles-marion-russell-saloon-girl-with-a-drunken-cowboy-c1898.jpg

http://www.blackpast.org/files/blackpast_images/Cherry_County_Nebraska_Homesteaders.jpg

http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-media//59/78359-050-90389E86.jpg

http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/famine/thp-irish-csa.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ChineseMigration003.jpg
Download

Unique Experiences of - socialstudiesguy.com