Prelude to a speech
The world’s most memorable heroes include poets, artists, politicians, actors, athletes,
writers, and ordinary people who were placed in extraordinary situations. The
world’s most vile villains include the scoundrels, murderers, war mongers, thieves, and
tyrants who still reach out through the ages to scare us. These men and women did
evil things and caused widespread suffering to further their own ends. Heroes and
villains have stories to share and secrets to tell.
This year, we have read, and will continue to read, various texts centered around
two themes found in many of the texts: Personal Identity through History and
Ordinary People as Heroes. This research project encompasses elements of both
themes. You will research a famous (or infamous) figure –learn about his/her
background, the time period in which he/she lived, and share what he/she has done
to leave a lasting impact. Keep in mind that your purpose is to inform and the
primary audience is the class.
Personal Identity through History
How do past events affect the
present and potentially the
Ordinary People as Heroes
How do the events of our time
shape who we are?
Are those who ignore history
doomed to repeat it?
Can one truly separate oneself
from the events of the world?
How does oppression limit
progress (as individuals and as a
What defines a hero?
Is there a difference between a
hero and a role model?
How can an ordinary person be
a hero?
Do the actions of a hero have to
impact many?
Do people plan to be heroes? Is
it a choice?
You will pick your person from a major period in history: the Progressive Era,
the Roaring 20’s, the Great Depression, WWII, or the turbulent 60’s (or
possibly the Renaissance). For tonight, choose two different eras (thus 2
different individuals) and demonstrate what you know and want (need) to
know to accomplish this task.
You should find at least two encyclopedias and read articles that contain
common knowledge (information that is indisputable and does not need to be
cited but may be helpful for a frame of reference). The articles will give you
many important leads, informing the nature of your research. You will place
key words, events, dates, etc., from the articles on the KWL chart I have
provided, giving yourself a graphic representation of how to proceed.
20th Century Figures
Walt Disney
*Elie Wiesel
W.E.B. Dubois
Amelia Earhart
Thomas Edison
Earnest Hemingway
Benito Mussolini
Theodore Roosevelt
Clark Gable
Bob Dylan
William M. “Boss” Tweed
Shirley Temple
Muhammad Ali
Jesse Owens
Judy Garland
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Mark Twain
Babe Ruth
Malcom X
P.T. Barnum
Albert Einstein
Rosa Parks
Elizabeth Cadt Stanton
Benny Goodman
Joseph Stalin
Upton Sinclair
Orson Welles
Orville and Wilbur Wright
Alfred Hitchcock
Herbert Hoover
Henry Ford
*Harper Lee
Harry Truman
John Steinbeck
Winston Churchill
Machine Gun Kelly
Franklin Roosevelt
Pretty Boy Floyd
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Duke Ellington
George Patton
Further lists can be found here:
The Renaissance:
Martin Luther
*William Shakespeare
Leonardo da Vinci
Galileo Galilei
Johannes Kepler
Christopher Columbus
Hernán Cortés
Ferdinand Magellan
Prelude to a speech
Domain Expectations
Does not meet
A strong and sophisticated controlling
idea (thesis/claim); clear and relevant
focus areas
Accurate, relevant, and informative
details; clearly connects figure’s
actions to an era of history and
conveys the lasting impact
Sophisticated arrangement: clear intro
(grabber), body, conclusion (zinger),
including transition words
Word/sentence choice and variety
that is appropriate for formal
research but contains elements of a
narrative (i.e. the story)
Spelling, grammar, punctuation,
mechanics, sentence structure, citations
Title page, content outline, in text
citations, Works Cited/Bibliography
Formal Outline
Title of Paper/ Issue
I. ____________________________________________________(Main Topic)
a.__________________________________(further detail)
II. ____________________________________________________________
“The Story”
For example:
If what FDR did was to lead the United States out of the
Great Depression, someone may need to understand
how the depression came to be and how millions were
living at the time.
If what Eisenhower did was lead the Allies in D-Day, it’s
important to understand some of the events of the war
that lead to D-Day.
I. Historical Foundation (Era information)
II. Historical Record (Heroic/villainous impact)
Title page
Shakespeare: Builder of the Renaissance
Joe Student
Advanced English 9
Mr. Hepler
Turn in Date (31 October 2014)
Grabber – a statement about the era or the impact
probably works best
Controlling ideas: identifies your figure, labels him
or her as a hero or villain, and places the person in
a historical era.
Areas of Focus: articulate each focus area more
specifically; however, make the preview
conversational in nature as you attempt to “tell a
story” as a narrative.
Intro exemplar
It is said that if one ruler falls, another will rise up
to take its place. During the Great Depression Era
around the 1920’s, once the Chicago government fell, a
new order came to the city: that of Al Capone and his
brutal Mafia. Although Al Capone may be appear to
be inhuman, he made his rocky start in the gangs of
New York early in his childhood. He took advantage of
the troubled historical era in which he existed. Finally, Al
Capone did inscribe his name on the walls of history
with many disturbing acts that led to worldwide
recognition, and even connect to the world today.
Intro exemplar
The Renaissance was a time of art, beauty, and
revolution. The works of artists and poets flourished,
opening a whole new world for people to explore. The
Renaissance also brought the birth of new knowledge,
awakening of minds, and a desire for learning. People
living in this time period developed new viewpoints on
philosophy, government, and religion (“The Renaissance
Period or Renaissance Era was a Time of Knowledge”).
William Shakespeare, world renowned poet, actor, and
playwright, was responsible for a large portion of the
arts during the Renaissance.
Drafting the body
Outline details the areas of focus…
HISTORICAL FOUNDATION – the story of his/her time
period and its effect on him/her, setting up...
HISTORICAL RECORD –what he/she did to forever
impact society then (and now)
*BIO SKETCH –relevant details of his/her life aren’t the
controlling focus but can be worked into “the story” as
you see fit
Drafting the Body
At this level of writing, focus areas are usually one paragraph each, but as
you become a better writer, your focus areas will grow from one paragraph to
several, eventually leading to pages worth of information focusing on a single
area. Whether your body is three, four, or seven paragraphs, ensure the focus of
all sentences supports the topic sentence (main idea) for your paragraph and keep
focus and relevancy to the task.
-More than likely chronological “flow”
-Consider tone (formal but narrative like)
-Provide evidence of research
-Give credit to your sources
Writing your Paper:
What do you need to Cite?
All Statistics (somebody else counted it)
All Direct Quotes
Any information that is controversial or questionable.
Opinions from scholars and other individuals you
Any information that is NOT common knowledge
This does appear vague… think “would a middle school
student know this?”, it appeared in every source I accessed, or
it’d be found in the first few lines of an encyclopedia.
*but always err on the side of caution (it’s better to
over-cite than under-cite)
How to cite…Signal Phrases
Christine Haughney reports that shortly after Japan made it illegal to use a
handheld phone while driving, "accidents caused by using the phones dropped
by 75 percent" (8).
The signal phrase — Christine Haughney reports that — names the author; then
the parenthetical citation gives the page number where the quoted words may
be found. It is also very common to include the title of the material as well,
especially when no author is present. Notice that the period follows the
parenthetical citation. When a quotation ends with a question mark or an
exclamation point, leave the end punctuation inside the quotation mark and
add a period after the parentheses: " . . . ?" (8).
How to cite…Parenthetical Citation
If no signal phrase is used, put the author's last name in parentheses along with
the page number. If there is no author for the source, use the complete or short
form of the title in parentheses. Titles of books are italicized; titles of articles
are put in quotation marks.
*NOTE: If a source has no author and is sponsored by a corporate entity, such
as an organization or a government agency, name the corporate entity as the
author (The American Medical Association).
Transition sentence from focus areas to the conclusion.
Oftentimes a restatement of the controlling idea will do.
As you review areas of focus, acknowledge the era, but
focus on the enduring impressions your historical figure
made on the world. What’s your answer to “why does
the name of… live on today?”
Zinger- Make a connection between your figure and
his/her actions to today’s world. Remember, the best
zingers connect to the paper’s grabber.
Conclusion exemplar
This villain, Alphonse Capone, has burned a frightening image into the minds
of American citizens across the country. It is one of distraught and sorrow. Of
blood splattered across a concrete wall while silver shining metal rounds clatter to
a cold floor, their clink muffled by the thud of bullets hitting flesh. The image is of
a city hurled into anarchy by the fleshy grip of poverty, and then helped back to
its feet by the cold hand of the Italian Mafia. The fall of the Chicago government
and rise of the mob not only reminds us of the sorrow that the country faced
during the Great Depression, but it warns us of the danger that follows the fall of
the government. People may not be naturally evil, but of the strong figures of
society who can take power in the event of a fail of the government, they have no
good intentions. We must learn from this lesson that Chicago taught us, just like
every mistake in history. We must not forget the dark times our country faced
during the Great Depression, instead we must ensure that this never will occur
Conclusion exemplar
Shakespeare’s words have lived through the ages and still
touch us, nearly 500 years later. In libraries, records, and
documents, he lives his life still, even though his flesh and bone
have long been washed away by time. Generations long after
will continue to read and perform his incredible plays,
fantastic poems, and heartwarming sonnets. In today’s world,
famous actors worldwide have created critically acclaimed
feature films out of a few of Shakespeare’s plays. With the
flourish of art and culture brought by the Renaissance,
Shakespeare’s work was able to stand in the spotlight, and will
continue to astonish audiences for years to come.
Bibliography vs. Works Cited
A bibliography is a collection of ALL the sources
that were reviewed during the researching process.
A works cited is a collection of ONLY the sources
that were cited in the paper/essay.
A –add (missing task items)
Do I have the content to share the story? Do I have a parenthetical (signal phrase) each
time I have a “Must Cite” piece of info?
R –remove (unnecessary detail, repetitiveness, etc.)
Are all bio sketch details relevant? Is historical era info both general and specific at the
same time? Do I stray from the essential story?
M –move (to create logical flow)
Does the chosen flow of the story make sense to another reader? Is it chronological? Are
my “sophisticated” transitions at paragraph beginning?
S –substitute (overused/inappropriate words… for style
and/or clarity)
Replace weak/linking verbs for strong/action verbs. No “In conclusion” clichés. No
first/second person pronoun. Do I keep a formal sensibility without being “stuffy”?
Draft Workshop -Citations
Make sure EVERY in-text citation matches an entry on the Works
Cited page and vice versa. Use only author’s last name and
page number (if there is one) or that titles are correctly identified
as books (books) or “articles”.
Make sure the first line of an entry is to the margin and
subsequent (2nd or 3rd) lines of an entry are indented, and
always alphabetize the entries with the first letter appearing at
the start of the entry. Continue to alphabetize according to
subsequent letters and/or numbers. You may run into similar
authors/titles, which have rules. This is where Noodletools should
do the work.
Turn in reminders
Make sure the work policy for font and spacing (12 point, Times
New Roman, double spaced) match class requirements.
However, no class heading/title is needed on the essay’s first
Instead, make sure each page of the paper has the author’s last
name and page number (like this: Hepler 4) in the upper right
hand corner. Start the numbering after the content outline and
continue through the Works Cited and Bibliography.
Staple the contents of the paper in this order: title page, content
outline, paper, Works, Bibliography, KWL, and ARMS activity,