Out of Many
A History of the American People
Seventh Edition Brief Sixth Edition
The New Nation
Out of Many: A History of the American People, Brief Sixth Edition
John Mack Faragher • Mari Jo Buhle • Daniel Czitrom • Susan H. Armitage
Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The New Nation
The Crisis of the 1780s
The New Constitution
The First Federal Administration
Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
“The Rising Glory of America”
Chapter Focus Questions
• What were the tensions and conflicts
between local and national authorities in
the decades after the American
• How did Americans differ in their views of
the new Constitution, and how were those
differences reflected in the struggle to
achieve ratification?
Chapter Focus Questions (cont’d)
• What were the essential structures of
national government under the
• How did American political parties first
• What were the first stirrings of an authentic
American national culture?
North America and Pelham
A Rural Massachusetts Colony Rises
in Defense
• Several hundred farmers from Pelham and
scores of other rural communities of
western Massachusetts converged in the
courthouse in Northampton.
• This occurred at a time of great economic
depression which hit farmers hardest.
A Rural Massachusetts in Colony
Rises in Defense (cont’d)
• The state raised property taxes to pay off
state debt-tax was which considerably
more oppressive than those levied by
• Two thirds of those who marched had
been sued for debt or spent time in
debtor’s prison— the people were looking
for state relief.
A Rural Massachusetts in Colony
Rises in Defense (cont’d)
• The people rose up in defense of their
property and state and federal
governments were forced to reevaluate
the distribution of power.
• In 1786, Shays’ Rebellion broke out in
western Massachusetts when farmers
closed down courts to prevent debt
A Rural Massachusetts in Colony
Rises in Defense (cont’d)
• A militia from eastern Massachusetts
crushed the rebellion.
• Conservatives concluded it was time “to
clip the wings of a mad democracy.”
The Crisis of the 1780s
FIGURE 8.1 Postwar Inflation, 1777–80: The
Depreciation of Continental Currency
The Economic Crisis
• Economic problems like wartime inflation
plagued the nation.
• After the war the key problem was
• Britain dumped its surplus goods in
American markets, creating a trade
imbalance that drew hard currency out of
the United States.
The Economic Crisis (cont'd)
• Repayment of debt became both a political
and economic problem.
FIGURE 8.2 The Trade Deficit with Great Britain
State Remedies
• High tariffs to curb imports and protect
infant industries but were easily evaded by
• The most controversial economic
remedies were designed to relieve debt
State Remedies (cont'd)
• “Rogue Island”
 Farmers called for laws to require creditors to
accept goods and commodities and had laws
passed requiring them to accept nearly
worthless state paper currency.
Toward a New National Government
• Nationalists wanted stronger central
government to deal with the economic
• Representatives from five states met in
 Called for convention to propose changes in
the Articles of Confederation
 Congress endorsed a convention for revising
the Articles of Confederation.
Toward a New National Government
• Propertied conservatives supported the a
stronger national government out of self
interest but hid their motives.
The New Constitution
George Washington presides over a session of the
Constitutional Convention
The New Constitution
• Fifty-five delegates from twelve states
assembled in Philadelphia in May 1787.
• The Constitution was framed by white men
who represented America’s social and
economic elite.
• Although committed to republicanism, the
Framers were not democrats and many
feared giving too much influence to the
lower classes.
The Constitutional Convention
• Delegates agreed to scrap the Articles and
create an effective national government
with powers to tax and regulate
• Conflicts arose between large and small
states, and free and slave states.
The Constitutional Convention
• The Great Compromise provided a middle
ground for agreement by:
 a bicameral legislature that had one house
based on population and one representing all
states equally; and
 a compromise on free-state and slave-state
interests by agreeing to count five slaves as
three freemen.
The Constitutional Convention
• To insulate the election of the president
from the popular vote, a electoral college
was created to select a president.
Ratifying the New Constitution
• Federalists supported Constitution.
• Anti-Federalist: Constitution gave too
much power to the central government
and that a republic could not work well in a
large nation.
• James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John
Jay published The Federalist Papers that
helped secure passage.
Ratifying the New Constitution
• After New Hampshire was the ninth state
to ratify, the holdouts reluctantly ratified as
MAP 8.1 The Ratification of the Constitution,
The Bill of Rights
• Several states including Virginia, agreed to
ratification only if a bill of rights would be
• Under Madison’s direction, Congress
drew up twelve articles from AntiFederalist proposals and sent them to the
The Bill of Rights (cont'd)
• The first ten amendments, better known as
the Bill of Rights, protected freedom of
expression and religion and insured due
process of law.
The First Federal Administration
A cartoon published in July 1788, when New York
became the eleventh state to ratify the
The Washington Presidency
• George Washington used a plain
republican title and dressed in plain
republican broadcloth but adopted some
trappings of royalty such as a coach and
six horses.
• Congress established the Departments of
States, Treasury, War, and Justice, the
heads of which coalesced into the
The Washington Presidency (cont'd)
• Washington’s appointments balanced
sectional and political interests.
The Federal Judiciary
• The Judiciary Act of 1789 created the
federal court system with district and
circuit courts added to Supreme Court
established in the Constitution headed by
Chief Justice John Jay.
• States maintained their individual bodies
of law.
The Federal Judiciary (cont’d)
• Federal courts became the appeals
bodies, establishing the federal system of
judicial review of state legislation despite
the Constitution’s silence on the issue.
• Localists supported the Eleventh
Amendment that prevented states from
being sued by non-citizens.
Hamilton’s Fiscal Program
• 1790: proposals to address America’s
economic problems
 a controversial adoption of state debts that
passed when a compromise moved the
nation’s capital to the Potomac River
 creating a Bank of the United States that
opponents considered an unconstitutional
expansion of power
 a protective tariff to develop an industrial
Hamilton’s Fiscal Program (cont.)
• The debate over Hamilton’s loose
construction and Jefferson’s strict
construction of the Constitution strained
the Federalist coalition.
• Washington generally supported
Hamilton’s vision.
Two coins from the first decade of the federal
Alexander Hamilton (ca. 1804)
American Foreign Policy
• Foreign affairs produced strain
• When the Revolution turned violent and
war broke out with Britain, public opinion
• Hamilton favored closer ties with Britain
while Jefferson feared them.
American Foreign Policy (cont'd)
• “Citizen Genet” incident
 Led Washington to issue a neutrality
proclamation that outraged Jefferson’s
supporters and led to his resignation from the
MAP 8.2 Spread of Settlement:The Backcountry
Expands, 1770–90
The United States and the Indian
• A pressing “foreign” problem concerned
Indians who refused to accept United
States sovereignty over them.
• The Indian Intercourse Act made treaties
the only legal way to obtain Indian lands.
• St. Clair’s defeat in November 1791 by
Little Turtle’s Miamis revealed the
contradictions of Indian policy.
Little Turtle, a war chief of the Miami tribe of the
Ohio Valley
MAP 8.3 Spanish Claims to American Territory,
The Columbian Tragedy
Spanish Florida and British Canada
• Spanish and British hostility threatened the
status of the United States in the West.
• The Spanish closed the Mississippi River
to American shipping, promoted
immigration, and forged alliances with
Indian tribes to resist American expansion.
Spanish Florida and British Canada
• Britain granted greater autonomy to its
North American colonies, strengthened
Indian allies, and constructed a defensive
buffer against Americans.
The Crisis of 1794
• By 1794, the government faced a crisis
over western policy.
• Western farmers were refusing to pay the
whiskey tax.
• An army sent into western Pennsylvania
ended the Whiskey Rebellion.
The Crisis of 1794 (cont'd)
• General Anthony Wayne defeated the
Ohio Indians, leading to the Treaty of
Greenville in 1795 and the cession of huge
amounts of land by the Ohio Indians.
Settling Disputes with Britain and
• The Jay Treaty resolved several key
disputes between the United States and
Britain. Opponents held up the treaty in
the House until Pinckney’s Treaty with
Spain opened the Mississippi to American
navigation and resolved the Florida border
Settling Disputes with Britain and
Spain (cont'd)
• The political battles over the Jay Treaty
brought President Washington off his
nonpartisan pedestal and persuaded him
not to seek a third term.
Washington’s Farewell Address
• In his farewell address, Washington
praised the political and economic
accomplishments of the new government,
but warned against the evils of political
• In foreign policy, he urged Americans to
seek peace and trade but to avoid
entangling alliances with the European
President George Washington reviews some
13,000 troops at Fort Cumberland
Federalists and DemocraticRepublicans
Contemporary cartoon, Congressional Pugilists,
Congress Hall in Philadelphia, February 15, 1798
The Rise of Political Parties
• During the debate over Jay’s Treaty,
shifting coalitions began to polarize into
political factions.
 Hamilton’s supporters claimed the title
 Thomas Jefferson’s supporters called
themselves “Republicans.”
The Rise of Political Parties (cont'd)
• These coalitions shaped the election of
1796, which the Federalist John Adams
narrowly won.
 Jefferson, the Republican candidate, became
vice president.
The Adams Presidency
• Relations with France deteriorated after
Jay’s Treaty.
• When France began seizing American
shipping, the nation was on the brink of
• The X, Y, Z Affair made Adams’s
popularity soar.
The Alien and Sedition Acts
• Alien and Sedition Acts
 severely limited freedoms of speech and of
the press; and
 threatened the liberty of foreigners.
• Republicans organized as an opposition
• Federalists saw opposition as opposition
to the state and prosecuted leading
Republican newspaper editors.
The Alien and Sedition Acts (cont'd)
• Jefferson and Madison drafted the Virginia
/ Kentucky Resolves to nullify the Alien
and Sedition Acts.
MAP 8.4 The Election of 1800
Election banner, illustrated with an American
eagle and a portrait of Jefferson.
The Revolution of 1800
• In the election of 1800, the Federalists
waged a defensive struggle calling for
strong central government and good order.
• By controlling the South and the West,
Jefferson won the election.
• A tie between Jefferson and Burr
threatened a Federalist scheme to steal
the election which failed in the House.
The Revolution of 1800 (cont'd)
• The 12th Amendment was ratified to split
the electoral vote in future elections.
Democratic Political Culture
• The rise of partisan politics greatly
increased popular participation.
• American politics became more
competitive and democratic.
• Celebrations of Independence Day
emphasized republican ideals and brought
Americans together in civil festivals.
“The Rising Glory of America”
Judith Sargent Murray
The Liberty of the Press
• The Revolutionary years saw a
tremendous increase in the number of
• During the 1790s newspapers became
media for partisan politics.
• In response to prosecutions under the
Sedition Act, American newspapers helped
to establish the principle of a free press.
The Liberty of the Press (cont'd)
• Jefferson, championing freedom of
expression, repealed or allowed the Alien
and Sedition Acts to expire.
Books, Books, Books
• As a highly literate citizenry, Americans
had a great appetite for books.
• Writers explored the political implications
of independence or examined the new
society including the emerging American
• Parson Weems’s Life of Washington
created a unifying symbol for Americans.
Women on the Intellectual Scene
• Although women’s literacy rates were
lower than that of men, a growing number
of books were specifically directed toward
• Several authors urged that women in a
republic should be more independent.
• Judith Sargent Singer promoted feminism,
leading conservatives to react with horror.
Women on the Intellectual Scene
• For most, the ideal republican woman was
a mother at the service of her family.
The New Nation,
• Under a new Constitution, the United
States overcame political and economic
crisis, but it remained uncertain whether
the new nation would be able to channel
the energies of an expanding people.