Session IV - SW23A
Welfare Pluralism
Concepts of 'welfare pluralism' and 'the mixed economy of
welfare' have recently come to increasing prominence in social
policy discussions. They are used to describe a reduced role for
state intervention in welfare and greater emphasis an voluntary
action informal and the market. – Beresford & Croft (2009)
1
Objectives





Define welfare pluralism
Delineate the role of the actors in the
administration of welfare.
Evaluate the legitimacy of welfare pluralism
Conclude the best blend for the nations of the
Region.
Predict the role of human service professionals
in administering welfare in the Caribbean.
2
The Context


In
some
countries,
nongovernmental
organisations (NGOs) are major contributors
to development processes. This is not uniform,
however.
In a number of countries, NGOs are weak or
play more of an oppositional rather than
operational role and governments are highly
suspicious of them.
3
The Context





The principal avenues by which governments can
influence the operational environment for NGOs
are:
Nature and quality of governance (pluralism,
accountability, etc.).
The legal framework (registration, reporting
requirements, etc.).
Taxation policies (on imported goods, local
philanthropy, etc.).
Collaboration with NGOs (when? sector? nature of
4
partnership?).
The Context




The principal avenues by which governments can
influence the operational environment for NGOs
are:
Public consultation and information (policy impact
of NGOs).
Coordination (role for governments in coordinating
NGO activities).
Official support (government funding, official
contracts).
5
The Context


NGOs have become important actors in
development assistance for at least three reasons:
First, because of their scale. In 1989, they
contributed US$6.4 billion to developing countries
(including $2.2 billion of official funds),
representing some 12 percent of total development
assistance.
Second, because of their style of work. Many
NGOs have demonstrated an ability to reach poor
people, work in inaccessible areas, innovate, or in
other ways achieve things which are difficult for
6
official agencies (Tendler 1982).
The Context

Third, many of them represent poorer people.
Many NGOs have close links with poor
communities. Some are membership organizations
of poor or vulnerable people. Others are skilled at
participatory approaches.
7
The Context


The NGO attributes cited above have become
increasingly important in recent years as: Official
aid agencies and many governments seek to give
greater attention to assisting women, the food
insecure,
indigenous
peoples,
AIDS
sufferers/orphans and other vulnerable groups,
which NGOs are better able to reach.
Long experience of work with communities living
in environmentally sensitive areas (including
forests, desert margins, urban slums, etc.)
provides NGOs with certain comparative
8
advantages in dealing with environmental issues.
The Context

There is a more clearly recognized need for
pluralism and prominent citizens' voices in
national development planning. NGOs can
contribute to this in many ways including, at the
local level, by the promotion of grassroots
mobilization for social change (Clark 1991) or
participatory development.
9
The Context


There is increasing realization of the need to
"roll back the State" in many countries where it
has become over-extended. This gives greater
prominence to the private and voluntary sectors.
The rapid growth in numbers of NGOs many
highly-specialized or localized which gives
donors a wide choice of partners and
considerable influence over those partners in
many countries. This proliferation is highly
country-specific.
10
Who Provides Social Services?

Welfare services were historically provided by
families, communities, religious orders, and
private charities.

Provision of social services by the state occurred
in the 1st world with the advent of the “welfare
state”, (Spicker, 2008).

Very few developing countries are welfare states.
11
Welfare Pluralism – “mixed economy of
welfare”

Provision of social/welfare services by a range of social
actors.

Welfare pluralism involves six main actors
 State
 Non-partisan government
 Private sector
 Voluntary
sector - NGOs and charities, Social/
Community/Special Interest/Religious groups
 Informal sector - family, friends, neighbours
 International Development Partners (IDPs)
12
Who Provides Social Services?

The view of the State being central to
organisation and delivery of welfare is “half
truth at best” and Titmuss referred to the
“social division of welfare” (Spicker, 2008;
135).
13
Welfare Pluralism Defined


The coordination of service delivery through a
plurality of service providers.
The concepts of welfare pluralism (WP) and
mixed economy of welfare (MEW), were
formulated in the late 1970s and early 1980s in
an attempt to emphasise the plurality of
sources and forms of intervention in welfare.
14
Pertinent Questions regarding the Delivery
of Social/Welfare Programmes

Should the State provide universal coverage
for all or should it be a residual provider for
persons excluded from access to private
provision?


What scope & what extent?
Should the State enter partnerships with the
Private Sector and NGOs?

On what terms?
15
Rationale for Welfare Pluralism



Most countries already used this model
In 1st world increasing costs (OPEC oil shocks of
1973 and 1979) strained fiscal resources
The rise of economic neo-liberalism and the
Washington Consensus in the 1980s (influenced
primarily by Margaret Thatcher- UK and Ronald
Reagan- US, called Thatcherism/ Reaganomics).
16
Neo-liberal Approach to Social Policy

Neo-liberal advocates urged States to assume a
‘back seat’ position’.

The market was seen as the best allocator of
resources. This resulted in a move from the
“welfare state” to the “welfare mix” (Dean,
2008)
17

After 1970s oil shocks, recession in North
many countries experienced a period of
economic stagflation (high inflation coupled
with low growth).

This reduced their ability to fund universal
provision of social services.

Third World countries were forced to cut
social spending under structural adjustment
programmes
18
The Case Behind reduced State
Involvement




High Cost for universal provisioning
Inefficienct/ slow service provided
government agencies
Uneven coverage
Poor quality service
by
19
What must be the State’s Role under
Welfare Pluralism?
1. Establishment of policy
 Only the State has the mechanism for
taking decisions on social policy and
welfare provisioning for the nation.
2.
Providing the institutional and legal
framework for the delivery of social services
20
State’s Role
3.
Planning, designing and integrating health
and education services
State is able to capitalize on economies of
scale in purchasing to obtain lower costs.
Cost sharing sometimes used.
4.Establishment,
maintenance
of
standards
enforcement
and
minimum universal
21
What must be the State’s Role?
5. Regulation and monitoring of social services
provided by State and allied non-state actors
6. Assisting disadvantaged groups through the
provision of safety nets, subsidies etc.
22
What must be the State’s Role?
7.
8.
To protect children & other vulnerable groups
like elderly, mentally ill, and disabled.
To step in to plug gaps when necessary
services cannot be provided by the private
market or will be closed because they are
unprofitable.
23
Welfare Pluralism

Private, Voluntary and informal sectors play
an important role

Citizens through voluntary groups, NGOs are
participating more in discussions which shape
social policy

Role of IDPs becoming more important
24
Welfare Pluralism Inevitable

Neo-liberal ideological shift

Most states do not have the resources to provide
for all welfare needs

“It was only when it began to become apparent that
government was neither willing nor able to ‘deliver the
goods’ that unrest began to reappear, and private,
voluntary initiatives in this sphere re-emerged” – Dr.
Peta-Ann Baker writing about the post-Independence
period in Jamaica (1993; 346)
25
Welfare Pluralism



Ferreira (2008) believes that welfare mixes should
be considered in their particular territorial contexts,
policy fields and historical moments.
Second, there is a plurality of sources of welfare
such that the typical components of MEW can be
complemented with those of the social division of
welfare (SDW).
While MEW concerns the articulation between
welfare mechanisms such as state, market, voluntary
and informal governance, SDW considers diverse
means of welfare delivery such as statutory,
26
occupational and fiscal.
The Social Division of Welfare


Titmuss identified several different kinds of
redistributive process, arguing that it was not
possible to understand the redistributive impact of
social policy without taking them fully into account.
He referred to a 'social division of welfare',
including three main types of welfare:
1. social welfare (the social services);
2. fiscal welfare (welfare distributed through the tax
system);
and
3. occupational welfare (welfare distributed by
industry as part of employment).
27
The Social Division of Welfare



The classification is fairly crude. The category of
fiscal welfare bundles together subsidies, incentives
and transfer payments, including income
maintenance.
Occupational welfare includes perks, salary-related
benefits, measures intended to improve the
efficiency of the workforce and some philanthropic
measures.
The classification excludes legal welfare
(redistribution through the courts), the voluntary
sector and the informal sector.
28
The Social Division of Welfare

The importance of the idea was:



to draw attention to different patterns of redistribution
to explain that different kinds of redistribution (for
example by tax or by benefits) can have similar effects,
and
to broaden the scope of social policy as a subject.
29
Welfare Pluralism


Third, Ferreira (2008) showed that the provision,
financing and regulation are three ways through
which these sources intervene in welfare.
Provision and production relate to the themes of
production/ownership and to the question of who
pays for welfare, regulation relates to legal political
authority and can be measured in terms of the degree
of control.
30
Welfare Pluralism


The key effort to re-define the voluntary sector
role as supplementary and complementary to
the statutory sector was Beveridge's
"Voluntary Action" of 1948.
He set out the way forward for the voluntary
sector as being advice, leisure, pioneering and
experimentation, and this model remained the
dominant ideology for the 1950s and the
1960s, leaving the voluntary sector on the
periphery of the welfare state in the UK.
31
Welfare Pluralism


Voluntary and nonprofit organisations in the
world over are taking on increasing
responsiblity for the delivery of social services
to local communities.
Many voluntary sector organisations have
moved from being providers of supplementary
and complementary services, to being providers
of core statutory services under a formal
contract.
32
Welfare Pluralism Inevitable

Neo-liberal ideological shift

Most states do not have the resources to provide
for all welfare needs

“It was only when it began to become apparent that
government was neither willing nor able to ‘deliver the
goods’ that unrest began to reappear, and private,
voluntary initiatives in this sphere re-emerged” – Dr.
Peta-Ann Baker writing about the post-Independence
period in Jamaica (1993; 346)
33
Role of Voluntary Sector

Diversifying social service provision and
supplementing state services

NGOs are seen as more effective in delivering aid,
and ensuring that more $ reach the poor

In 1981 US Congress mandated the USAID to allocate between
12 – 16% of its development funds to NGOs who are seen as
more efficient utilizers of funds, than states
34
Role of Voluntary Sector

Increasing citizen participation/ altruism

Public advocacy on behalf of vulnerable

NGOs see themselves “as partners of government,
or they see themselves in compensatory and
corrective roles: making up for the failings of the
existing system, or serving as a ‘voice of the
voiceless’ in pointing out these failings” (Baker,
347)
35
Role of Voluntary Sector

Increasing accountability from the State &
other welfare providers

Assisting with poverty alleviation

Assistance to excluded groups e.g. orphans,
homeless, street children

Provision of education and health care
Role of Voluntary Sector

Helping groups that might reject State services or
might be stigmatized by State services
(prostitutes, HIV/AIDS patients, drug addicts,
prison ministry of churches)

Risk of NGO sector being co-opted/used by
foreign IDPs or local governments to further their
own ends
37
Role of IDPs

Very active in shaping the global social policy agenda
Key agencies include
 United Nations Development Program - UNDP
 UNICEF
 UNFPA
 USAID
 PAHO/WHO
38
IDP Programmes




poverty reduction programmes
improving the welfare of women and children
improving healthcare, e.g. immunization coverage,
sexual and reproductive health,
infrastructure projects, e.g. sanitation, water supply
systems
39
The Role of the Private Sector

Provision of social services at a cost, e.g.
private schools, private medical facilities

Provision of specialized services

Occupational welfare to workers
40
The Role of the Private Sector

Partnering with the State and other NGOs in welfare
provision
E.g.- Adopt-a-School programmes; Provision of
computer labs
 Provision of medical equipment to hospitals
 Financing cost of CXC subjects by NCB
** Firms benefit from tax write-offs, creates good
corporate image.
41
Limitations of Private Provision

Private market does not respond to social need, will
not provide services to areas/groups which are
unprofitable.

Externalities - Education, healthcare, parks etc. have
value to society outside of the value to an
individual/company.

State services have other functions e.g. socialization,
disease prevention
42
The Role of the Informal Sector

Reduces the burden on the State

Plugs gaps in state social services

Care of sick, elderly or persons discharged from
mental institutions provided .

Thinking Point: Students to note implications
of having welfare pluralism.
43
Approaches to Welfare Pluralism


Approaches to the coordination of service
provision:
the use of the market to coordinate service
delivery, with a reliance upon the price
mechanism
and
a
system
of
negotiated/competitive contracts to ensure
service delivery.
44
Approaches to Welfare Pluralism


Here, services are coordinated by using
negotiated, and sometimes competitive,
tendering processes.
Providers face the transaction costs of
tendering for these contract (particularly in
terms of information about the services that
they might contract for, and about the activities
of their potential competitors/collaborators).
45
Approaches to Welfare Pluralism

Build networks as a way to minimise these
informational transaction costs by gaining
information both from the purchasers about the
service specifications and from competitors
and collaborators about the range of alternative
ways in which the service provision might be
approached.
46
Kingston Restoration Corporation

The KRC was formed in response to the
dramatic economic and social deterioration of
the downtown area of Kingston in the mid
1970s and early 1980s. This deterioration was
a consequence of the numerous fires and riots
that plagued the city, as a result of which many
businesses migrated from the area.
47
Kingston Restoration Corporation

As a result the Inner Kingston Development
Project was born. This was a ten year urban
economic and physical development initiative,
which began in July 1986. It was designed to
revitalize Kingston, Jamaica’s downtown core and
provide work space for economic growth and job
generation. The two principal implementing
agencies were the Kingston Restoration Company
Limited and the Urban Development Corporation,
the primary developmental parastatal organisation
of the Government of Jamaica with USAID being
48
the funding agency.
Kingston Restoration Corporation

The goal of the project was to reverse the
negative economic trends and disinvestment
that had been occurring downtown since the
mid 1970s and contributed to Jamaica’s need
for increased private investment and
employment opportunities.
49
Kingston Restoration Corporation

The rationale in 1986 for focusing the Project on
Inner Kingston was threefold: (1) it had the highest
rate of unemployment in the area, (2) reversing its
deterioration would help to rekindle investment
expectations nationwide and (3) the area offered
significant opportunities for cost savings in
development because infrastructure systems were
in place and vacant building shells could be
rehabilitated and put to productive use
economically.
50
51
KRC

Micro Enterprise Financing Limited (MEFL)
is a not-for-profit corporation limited by
guarantee, dedicated to assisting in the
development of micro enterprises in
designated urban communities of Jamaica.
MEFL was incorporated on May 7, 2002 and
is located at 12 Duke Street, Kingston and
three rural branches in the parishes of St.
Elizabeth, Westmoreland and St. Catherine.
52
KRC

The general purpose of MEFL will be to make
microfinance services available to the low
income, urban and rural, micro entrepreneurs
with little or no collateral, while branching out
to a similar of communities elsewhere in
Jamaica in due course. Loans are made at
existing micro finance market rates and
following standard business practices.
53
KRC

MEFL is sponsored by the Canadian
International Development Agency (CIDA),
The Bank of Nova Scotia Jamaica Ltd (BNSJ)
and Kingston Restoration Company (KRC)
BNS provide capitalization in the form of
loans to the organization and CIDA provided
funding to cover operational start-up cost.
KRC is the community agent, assisting with
promotion and the identification of suitable
borrowers/group of borrowers.
54
Approaches to Welfare Pluralism



Approaches to the coordination of service
provision:
the use of hierarchical arrangements to
coordinate service delivery, either in the form
of bureaucratic planning and coordination
systems; or by the vertical integration of
service providers into the purchasing agencies.
In this case line management relationships will
be used to coordinate service delivery.
55
Approaches to Welfare Pluralism



The hierarchical methods used here serve to
coordinate service provision, by a pyramidal
structure of planning committees, which fed
unmet needs from local communities to the
central purchasing function of the authority.
This structure is strong on accountability.
However, the length of time involved in
responding to some unmet need in local areas
could be a transaction cost of this mechanism.
56
Approaches to Welfare Pluralism

Build networks at the local level between the
agency and service providers to short-cut the
structure and respond more quickly to such
needs.
57
The CHASE Fund


The Culture, Health, Arts, Sports and Education
Fund CHASE was incorporated on November 25,
2002 and began its operations in January 2003.
It was registered under the Companies Act to
receive, distribute, administer and manage the
monetary contributions from the lottery
companies in Jamaica in connection with:
Sports Development
Early Childhood Education
Health
58
Arts and Culture
The CHASE Fund

The company became a reality based on the
concept of ‘taxes foregone’ that would have
normally gone to the consolidated fund. The
approach had as its precedent the
establishment of the Sports Development
Foundation (SDF) to receive a percentage of
the proceeds earned by the first licencee
permitted to conduct a lottery, the Jamaica
Lottery Company.
59
The CHASE Fund

Prior to the establishment of CHASE, the
Sports Development Foundation (SDF),
reported to the National Council on Sports and
the Minister of Sports. This relationship
continues though funds for the SDF are now
routed through CHASE.
60
The CHASE Fund

A special Advisory Committee was established
to exercise general management and control of
the funds made available for Early Childhood
Education by the lottery companies. The
Committee has representatives from the
Ministry of Education, Jamaica Lottery
Company, Supreme Ventures and three
independent members.
61
The CHASE Fund

A Trust Fund known as the Health Support
Fund within the Ministry of Health was
established to receive and administer the
contributions made to health. Requests for
equipment, etc. were submitted to the Board of
Trustees and evaluated by a sub-committee of
the Board. The Board of Trustee made the
final decision as to which projects were to be
funded.
62
The CHASE Fund


The rationale for the establishment of the
CHASE Fund hinges on the assumption of
greater efficiencies to be realized from a
central administration.
The funds of the CHASE Fund are to be
allocated in the following proportions:
Sports Development - 40%
Early Childhood Education - 25%
Health - 20%
Arts and Culture - 15%
63
The CHASE Fund


In relation to Sports Development, the Fund
will disburse monetary contributions to the
Sports Development Foundation (SDF) for the
benefit of various sporting interventions.
The CHASE Fund is Managed by an twelve
(12) member Board supported by a Chief
Executive Officer and staff.
64
The CHASE Fund




The CHASE Fund will administer and manage the
allocations to satisfy the following objectives:
Improvement
of
libraries,
archives
and
documentation facilities
Implementation of programmes to expose and
encourage the people of Jamaica, especially the
young, to utilize facilities such as libraries,
archives, and documentation.
Establishment, funding and implementation of
programmes for the development of talents and
skills in the youth of Jamaica in the areas of 65the
Arts and Culture
The CHASE Fund





Utilization of cultural activities in the conveying of
development objectives
Acquisition, restoration, maintenance or use of
historic sites and monuments
Establishment of opportunities for cultural display
and exhibitions to facilitate the show-casing of
Jamaican culture
Provision of opportunities for more people to attend
and participate in artistic activities
To assist in the creation and preservation of
documentary film footage on Jamaica’s history 66
The CHASE Fund



The CHASE Fund will administer and manage the
allocations to satisfy the following objectives:
Implementation of programmes for the development
of healthy lifestyles in Jamaica; and to assist and
promote with grants or otherwise the development
and improvement of health facilities in Jamaica.
Building, upgrading, restoring and equipping health
facilities, children’s homes, palliative and drug
rehabilitation centres, AIDS hospices and shelters
for the homeless.
67
The CHASE Fund



Training of personnel to administer and operate
health facilities, children’s homes, palliative and
drug rehabilitation centres, AIDS hospices and
shelters for the homeless.
Upgrading of health care facilities and provision of
additional services for the delivery of Health care to
the mentally challenge.
Collaboration with the private sector in the delivery
of health care.
68
The CHASE Fund

Assisting in the development of programmes to
facilitate the design of plans and strategies for the
prevention of drug abuse among children.

Supporting programmes designed for community
involvement so as to bring about a decrease in the
incidence of drug abuse and its adverse effect on the
community.

Development and implementation of programmes
for cancer prevention, detection, treatment and care.
69
The CHASE Fund

Sports create opportunities through which
talented Jamaicans are being nurtured for
national and international competition.
CHASE is deeply committed to providing
financial support for the development of the
nation’s athletes, and providing world-class
athletic facilities, working through the Sports
Development Foundation.
70
The CHASE Fund




Funds go towards:
Support for programmes that develop dynamic
leadership qualities in youth;
Focussing on sports development as part of the
process of national building;
Promotion and encouragement of the
development of talent and skill in sports that
will uplift the social and economic
development of the Jamaican people.
71
The CHASE Fund



The CHASE Fund will administer and manage
the allocations to satisfy the following
objectives:
Health screening of children in early childhood
institutions
Building, upgrading and equipping of early
childhood resource centres (including furniture
and learning materials)
Support for development/manufacture of early
childhood materials to enhance the cognitive 72
development of children.
The CHASE Fund




Improvement of the nutritional status of pupils
in Basic and Infant schools; or Infant schools
and Infant departments within Primary and All
Age schools.
Support the early childhood training
programmes both pre service and in-service.
Provision of scholarships for specialists
training in Early Childhood Education
Support for local and regional Early Childhood
conferences and public education activities. 73
The CHASE Fund





Institutional strengthening of the National Early
Childhood Programme
Special provisions to extend resource centre
facilities in communities which cannot access parish
based centre facilities.
Assist communities and charitable and non-profit
organizations in providing out-of-school-hours child
care.
Expand the use of radio and televisions programmes
to enrich and support the curriculum.
Support research for the development of early 74
Approaches to Welfare Pluralism



Approaches to the coordination of service
provision:
the use of clans to coordinate service delivery.
These cut across any formal market or
hierarchical arrangements by utilising the
informal
network
linkages
between
organisations.
In this case coordination will be through these
networks, with a consequent reliance upon
personal relationships.
75
Approaches to Welfare Pluralism


The provision social services is coordinated
through the local 'clans' of (Ouchi, 1980)
service purchasers and providers.
Historically there will have to be a close knit
relationship between these organisations and
this pre-existing pattern of relationships is used
to coordinate a service provision.
76
Approaches to Welfare Pluralism



Value driven and speedy service delivery is
based on trust.
This coordinating mechanism thus possesses a
strong institutional bias in its selection of
potential service providers.
May not respond to all community needs
because providers who are “out” are not
included among service providers.
77
Jamaicans for Justice



Jamaicans for Justice (JFJ) is a non-profit,
non-partisan, non-violent volunteer citizens’
rights action organisation founded in 1999.
MISSION
Through the works of our action group we will
bring about fundamental change in Jamaica ’s
judicial, economic, social and political systems
in order to improve the present and future lives
of all Jamaicans.
78
Jamaicans for Justice




VISION
A Jamaica where the rights of all are ensured;
where there is equal opportunity for citizens to
realize their full potential and enjoy a sense of
wellbeing; and where our culture is enhanced
and respect shared.
VALUES
Truth, Transparency, Integrity, Empathy,
Humility, Respect.
79
Jamaicans for Justice



BELIEFS
Justice is the bedrock of any civilized and
progressive society and all Jamaicans must
have equal access to fair and impartial
treatment.
Jamaicans are decent, law-abiding citizens;
that each person is innocent until proven guilty
in a Court of Law, and that each citizen
deserves respect, freedom and the right to
enjoy a peaceful existence.
80
Jamaicans for Justice


BELIEFS
We believe in the protection of the
Constitutional rights of every human being.
Not only an organizational credo, our belief in
protecting the basic rights of all citizens of
Jamaica is reinforced by the recognition and
acceptance of The Universal Declaration of
Human Rights (UDHR).
81
NGOs in the Caribbean – Belize

Alliance Against AIDS: The Alliance Against
AIDS was founded in 1997 and offers helpline
and counseling services to those affected with
HIV and AIDS. They also do pre-test and posttest counseling, as well as educational
seminars and events.
82
NGOs in the Caribbean – Belize



Belize Red Cross Society: The Belize Red Cross
Society (BRCS) has a clear mission that reflects the
Fundamental Principles.
The society has a good relationship with the
government, notably the ministries of health,
education and human development. The most
important areas of cooperation with the government
are health including HIV/AIDS and disaster
preparedness.
The society maintains good relations with other
organizations at the local level and has a very good
83
image in the community and the media.
NGOs in the Caribbean – Belize

Belize Family Life Association (BFLA): The
Belize Family Life Association (BFLA) was
established in 1985. BFLA is dedicated primarily
to family planning and reproductive health. From
it's six centers throughout Belize, BFLA provides
a range of reproductive health services including
pregnancy tests, STD diagnosis and treatment,
pap smear diagnosis and treatment of the early
stages of dysplasia, and counseling in sexual and
reproductive health.
84
NGOs in the Caribbean – Belize


SPEAR - Society for the Promotion of
Education and Research: The Society for the
Promotion of Education and Research (SPEAR)
is one of Belize's leading civil society
organizations. It is a non-government, nonpartisan
and
not-for-profit
membership
organisation.
SPEAR was formed in 1969 with the aim to
contribute to the making of modern Belize
through increased national and political
85
consciousness and people's participation.
NGOs in the Caribbean - Barbados

NGOs such as the Vagrants & Homeless
Association, Barbados Youth Business Trust,
Pinelands
Creative
Workshop,
Mens
Educational Support Association and Bush
Hall Institute for Action & Research do critical
work at the grassroots level and with youth.
86
NGOs in the Caribbean
– Trinidad & Tobago

Chaguaramas Dev.
Solutions For Hunger
The Hibiscus Foundation
Families In Action
YMCA Trinidad & Tobago
Friends of Tobago AIDS
The Cropper Foundation
Mamatoto Citizens for better T&T
Energy Skills Center
Love In Action
87
NGOs in the Caribbean – T&T

Hawks International
Torres Foundation
Persons with Disabilities
The Heroes Foundation
The Shelter
Self Empowerment
Police Complaints Authority
Greater Chaguanas Chamber
Empowerment Society
T&T Chamber
UWI Student Endeavours
The Barcam
88
Approaches to Welfare Pluralism


Note that there is no normative resolution of
these differing patterns of coordination and of
networks.
Each is a specific response to its context, and
in particular to the transaction costs that
service provision imposes upon the agency.
89
Advantages/Strengths of Welfare
Pluralism

Reduces financial burden on state

Diversity – range of services widened

Coverage

Altruism encouraged in the society
90
Weaknesses of Welfare Pluralism

Fragmentation of service delivery

Access
Variation in standards and quality of
services
 Cost of coordination/administration

91
Benefits of Welfare Pluralism




Joint planning - offers status, recognition of
expertise, and access into the hierarchy.
Accountability – resource allocation;
coverage of community
Culture - changes possible in the culture of
the voluntary sector. Shift from informal
partnerships to more formal contracts.
Relevance - represent the interests of persons
who use or are likely to use the services.
92
Benefits of Welfare Pluralism



Skills Transfers – budgeting, Grant Writing,
etc.
Costing – addition of costs which cover
central administration/salaries etc.?
Independence – does coming into the main
stream compromise independence?
93
Benefits of Welfare Pluralism


Partnerships flourish when both partners have
something to offer and something to gain.
Despite the enormous differential in finances,
status and perceived power, partnerships
between the public sector and voluntary
organisations of any size arise because each
has something the other needs.
94
Benefits of Welfare Pluralism


The benefits to the voluntary sector are
perceived to be security, clarity and income
generation.
The benefit to the public sector is clarity on the
“real” needs of local communities.
95
Thinking Points


What is the role of Social Work and other
Human Services Organisation professionals in
working in a system of welfare pluralism?
What are the options to this arrangement?
96
Your Role

Role of Social Work and other Human
Services Organisation professionals:
Mentors/Leaders
Lobbyists/Advocates/Educators
Developers and implementers of
social policy.
97