Age of Ideologies Lecture #2
The Ideologies!
Was the Congress of Vienna Successful?
Water =
Traditional
Conservative
Europe
Metaphor
Time
Fire = Liberal
Enlightenment
Ideas
Rolling BoilNapoleonic WarsBring Rev. to the
Rest of Europe
First BubblesFrench
Revolution
Was the Congress of Vienna Successful?
Holy
Alliance
Congress
of Vienna
Censorship,
etc
Carlsbad
Decrees
French
Revolution
Holy
Alliance
Congress
of Vienna
Censorship,
etc
Industrial
Carlsbad
Revolution
Decrees
An Explosion of Ideologies
•Liberals, aka Classical Liberals, still existed after the French Revolution
•Classical Liberals v Modern Liberals
•Their basic tenets are basically unchanged
•Liberty – representative gov’t, checks on power, etc.
•Equality- no class system or legal discrimination
•However, these ideas lost their appeal for many. Why?
•Didn’t go far enough
•Failed in French Revolution
•Classical Liberals want economic liberalism/free market capitalism. In the
new industrial age, this helps the bourgeoisie but not the working class.
•Ricardo, Malthus, and Smith are used by the bourgeoisie as justifications
of self-interested policies
•Classical Liberalism is tied to the moderate middle class
•Many desire more radical reform
The Central Ideologies of the Age
•
•
•
•
Utopian Socialism
Scientific Socialism
‘Old-style’ Nationalism
Romanticism
Utopian Socialism
• “The future, with industrial advancement
will be perfect!”
• However, many thinkers rejected Utopian
Socialism because it was impractical
– The utopian socialists never got anything
done!
Marxian, or ‘Scientific’ Socialism
• Marx saw that early (Utopian) Socialism was too
‘fanciful’
– not firmly grounded in theory or reality
– begged the bourgeoisie for concessions they would never
grant
• Inspired by (and teamed up with) Friedrich Engels
(The Condition of the Working Class in England)
• Wrote the Communist Manifesto
– Argued for a ‘scientific’ form of Socialism
Marx’s Basic Points
• history is the story of class struggle
– bourgeoisie had recently replaced the feudal nobility
• Political and economic systems protect the class in power
– Conservatism protected the aristocracy
– Capitalism and Liberalism protect bourgeois
• exploitation of the proletariat + class consciousness =
VIOLENT revolution
– Why was class consciousness already growing?
• Believed that labor was the source of all economic value but
that private property allowed capitalists to steal this value from
workers
• After proletarian revolution, abolish private property… end
of historical class struggle
Marxian Socialism – A More Complicated Look
• Idea of history as a dialectical process from German
philosopher Hegel
– Dialectic process means all of history was constant tension
leading to constant, predictable, change
• Hegel argued that there was always a dominant
societal model and an alternative model
– The two fought it out until a new synthesis was formed
and the whole process repeated.
• Marx added an engine to this dialectic: economics
– Abolish private property and you end the dialectical
Marx’s Impact
• Secular religion
– included all of the dominant strains of thought of
the time period: German philosophy, Utopian
Socialism, and Classical Economics (Capitalism)
• it replaced religion
– ‘opiate of the masses’
• Little noticed at first, but will become HUGE!
Marxian Socialism Is Highly Radical
• Fills Conservatives and even Classical
Liberals with special dread. Why?
• “Let the Ruling Classes Tremble at a
Communist revolution. The Proletariat have
nothing to lose but their chains. They have a
world to win. WORKING MEN OF ALL
COUNTRIES, UNITE!”
Nationalism
• After 1st Hundred Years War- France and England
• after 2nd HYW- rest of Europe
– Why? Largely a reaction against the French dominance of the continent of
Europe. “I don’t know who ‘we’ are, but I know we aren’t ‘them’!
• Definition  hope to turn ethnic boundaries (defined especially by
language) into political boundaries
• Most early nationalists were liberals or moderate socialists. Why
does this make sense?
– Liberalism- freedom and equality of an individual
– Nationalism is the freedom and equality of a people…each people must be
able to make their pure voice heard
• Why few conservative nationalists?
– Conservative monarchs rule over empires– if these people get nationalist
ideas, then you’ve got some problems
Nationalism
(cont.)
• Nationalism’s Dark Underbelly
– If we are prideful in our ethnicity, then … ???
– Later, we will be introduced to conservative
nationalists and the #[email protected] will hit the fan
– National Socialism  Nazism  equality of
condition, but only for our people
Romanticism
“the spontaneous overflow of powerful
feeling recollected in tranquility”
• German and English, which
means it is religiously attached to
…
• Sturm and Drang Movement
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Born out of Rousseau
• Ludwig van Beethoven
Johann Wolfgang Goethe • Liszt
Francisco Goya
•
Richard
Wagner
William Wordsworth
Lord Byron
Mary Shelley
Victor Hugo
Alexander Pushkin
Washington Irving
Characteristics
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Emotion
Spontaneity
Love of nature
Desire to know the unknowable
Fascinated with the bizarre and exotic
Anti-materialist
Intensely individualist
‘bohemian’
A Break With Classicism
• Rejects Industrialization
Beethoven’s Ode to Joy
Closely connected to Nationalism
• Why?
– Because Romanticism argues for intense
individualism
– Nationalism is like individualism of a collective
group (nationality/culture)
– the unique essence of each culture
• Europe as a ‘concert’ where each culture must play
their instrument
• Brother’s Grimm and other folktales
Possibly Wagner- Flight of the
Valkeryies Here
Hansen
Name ____________________
AP Euro
Period _________
The Age of Ideologies Lecture #2 ‘ The Ideologies’ Note-Taking Guide)
•
An Explosion of Ideologies
–
Liberals, aka Classical Liberals, still existed after the French
Revolution
• Classical Liberals v Moderate Liberals _____
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
–
Their basic tenets are basically unchanged
• Liberty – ______________________________________
• Equality- ______________________________________
–
However, these ideas lost their appeal for many. Why?
• ___________________________________
• ___________________________________
• Classical Liberals want __________________________
_______________________ . In the new industrial age,
this helps the bourgeoisie but not the working class.
– Ricardo, Malthus, and Smith are used by the
bourgeoisie as justifications of self-interested
policies
• Classical Liberalism is tied to the moderate middle class
•
The Central Ideologies of the Age
–
______________________ - ________________________
–
______________________ - ________________________
Utopian Socialism
–
“The future, with industrial advancement __________!”
–
However, many thinkers rejected Utopian Socialism because it
was _____________
• The utopian socialists never _________________!
Marxian, or ‘Scientific’, Socialism
–
Marx saw that early (Utopian) Socialism was too ‘fanciful’
• ____________________________________________
• begged the bourgeoisie for concessions ______________
__________________________
–
Inspired by (and teamed up with) _______________ (The
Condition of the Working Class in England)
–
Wrote _____________________________________
• Argued for a _______________________________
–
•
•
______________________________
–
–
Marx’s Basic Points
• history is the story of __________________
– _____________________________________
_____________________________________
• Political and economic systems ____________________
– Conservatism protected the ___________
• Capitalism and Liberalism _________________
– exploitation of the proletariat + class consciousness =
__________________________
– Why was class consciousness already growing?
______________________________________
______________________________________
• Believed that _________________________________
but that private property allowed capitalists to steal this
value from workers
• After proletarian revolution, ______________________
… end of historical class struggle
Marxian Socialism- a More Complicated Look
• Idea of history as a ___________________ from German
philosopher Hegel
– Dialectic process means all of history was
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
• Hegel argued that there was always a dominant societal
model and an alternative model
– ______________________________________
______________________________________
• Marx added an engine to this dialectic: ___________
– Abolish private property and you __________
_____________________________________
–
–
•
Marx’s Impact
• _____________________
– included all of the dominant strains of thought
of the time period: German philosophy, Utopian
Socialism, and Classical Economics
(Capitalism)
• it replaced religion
– ‘opiate of the masses’ - ___________________
_______________________________________
• Little noticed at first, but will _________________!
Marxian Socialism is __________________
• Fills Conservatives and even Classical Liberals with
special dread. Why?
• “Let the Ruling Classes Tremble at a Communist
revolution. The Proletariat have nothing to lose but their
chains. They have a world to win. WORKING MEN OF
ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE!”
• In other words __________________________________
_____________________________________________
Nationalism
–
–
–
–
–
–
After 1st Hundred Years War- France and England
after 2nd HYW- ______________________
• Why? Largely a reaction against the _______________
_______________________________. “I don’t know
who ______ are, but I know we aren’t __________!
Definition  hope to turn ___________________ (defined
______________________________) into political boundaries
Most early nationalists were liberals or moderate socialists. Why
does this make sense?
• Liberalism- freedom and equality of an individual
• Nationalism is the freedom and equality ____________
______________________ people must be able to make
their ______________________________
Why few conservative nationalists?
• Conservative monarchs rule over empires– if these
people ________________________________________
______________________________________________
Nationalism’s ___________________
•
•
•
If we are prideful in our ethnicity, then … ???
Later, we will be introduced to conservative nationalists
and the ________________________________
National Socialism  Nazism  __________________
___________________________________
•
Romanticism
–
“the spontaneous overflow of powerful feeling recollected in
tranquility”
–
German and English, which means it is religiously attached to
_________________________
–
Sturm and Drang Movement- __________________________
–
Characteristics
–
Emotion, Spontaneity, Love of nature, Desire to know
the unknowable, Fascinated with the _____________,
________________, _________________, ‘bohemian’
–
A break with Classicism
• Rejects Industrialization
–
Closely Connected to Nationalism
• Why?
– Because Romanticism argues for intense
individualism
– Nationalism is like ______________________
_____________________________________
– the unique essence of each culture
» Europe as a ‘concert’ where _______
______________________________
» Brother’s Grimm and other folktales _______________________________
_______________________________
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Utopian Socialism