THE FOUR FACES OF JESUS
THE GOSPELS ACCORDING TO
MATTHEW, MARK, LUKE AND
JOHN
OVERVIEW
• AUTHORS
– WHO
– WHEN
• SUMMARY
– ORGANIZATION
– STYLE
– AUDIENCE
• MESSAGE
THE ANOINTED,THE CHRIST, THE MESSIAH
• MESSIAH (English Trans.)
– A Hebrew word meaning "the
anointed one."
– In the Old Testament the high
priests and the kings were
anointed.
– But the name Messiah was
used among the Israelites for
Him alone who was foretold to
Adam and Abraham as the
“Savior from sin and the
blessing of all nations”
• (Gen. 3:15; 12:3; 22:18).
• Old Testament, prophecies about Him
constantly sustain hope in and desire
for His coming.
– He would have a precursor
• (Mal. 3:1);
– His birth of a virgin was foretold
• (Is. 7:14; Jer. 31:22);
– the time of His coming was revealed
to Daniel
• (Dan. 9:24);
– even the place of His birth was
designated
• (Mic. 5:2);
– His reign was described
• (Jer. 23:5);
– He would enter the rebuilt Temple
• (Hag. 2:8; Mal. 3:1);
– He was to abide among men and
would suffer a cruel passion and
death at their hands to redeem
mankind
• (Is. 42:1-4; 53:1-12);
– and was to rise from the dead as a
proof of His divinity
• (Hosea 6:2, Ps 16:10).
CHRIST
FORETOLD
THE FOUR FACES OF JESUS
• Same general
purpose
• Own style and
flavor
• Four different
authors
• Four different
traditions
THE FOUR FACES OF JESUS
Jesus’ words and actions
received a new light, a
new depth and fuller
interpretation than was
possible before the
resurrection and the
coming of the Spirit.
They were passed on in new
situations, and according
to the mentality, culture
and need of new hearers.
The Gospel of Matthew
JESUS THE KING
MATTHEW
• Matthew (Levi) the
disciple and tax collector
wrote 40-90 AD
– Original Aramaic and
“sayings” versus later
Greek text still debated
• Longest Gospel at 28
chapters
• Known as a book of
“teaching”
– Law, mission, mystery,
greatness, and future
• Infancy Narrative
– (1:1 – 2:23)
• Proclamation of the
Kingdom
– (3:1 – 7:29)
• Ministry and Mission in
Galilee
– (8:1 – 11:1)
• Opposition from Israel
– (11:2 – 13:53)
• Jesus, Kingdom and Church
– (13:54 – 18:35)
• Ministry Judea, Jerusalem
– (19:1 – 25:46)
• Passion and Resurrection
– ( 26:1 – 28:20)
Matthew’s
Organization
Matthew’s Style
• Jesus the King, descendent
of David
– Genealogy traced to David
– Son of David mentioned 10
times
– Visited by Kings at birth
• The fulfillment of prophecy
– Virgin birth (brief),
Bethlehem, innocents
– Quotes the prophets
• The Teacher
– Calls his own gospel a “book”
– Beatitudes, law, anger,
adultery, divorce, oaths,
retaliation, almsgiving, prayer
Matthew’s Style cont.
• Teaches us to pray.
– (6:10)
• Establishes the Church
and authority to Apostles
– (16:18, 18:18 twice)
• Gives Peter the Keys to
the Kingdom
• Peter 195, others 130,
John 29
Matthew’s Audience
• Primarily Jewish/Jewish
Christians
– “Kingdom of Heaven” vs
“Kingdom of God”
• 32 times in 31 verses
• Exclusive to Matthew
– “King of the Jews” – Magi,
Crucifixion
– OT similarities: 40 years/40
days, Moses mount/sermon
on mount, 12 tribes/12
apostles,
– Matthew focuses on
“tradition” (not gentile trait)
Matthew’s Message
• Jesus is Messiah prophesized in OT
of the lineage of David
• Jesus was Son of God and sinless
• Jesus performed miracles beyond
nature
– Calm storm, healing, raising dead
• Jesus gives examples of how to live
– Parables: faith, salvation, sacrifice,
love, legal issues, forgiveness,
temptation, hypocrisy, giving to others,
Heaven and Hell
The Gospel of Mark
JESUS THE SUFFERING SERVANT
The Gospel of Mark
• John Mark a follower of Peter
– Mentioned in: Acts 12/13, Col 4:10, 2
Tim 4:11 (obscure)
• Written 50 - 60 AD
– Before Jewish War 66-70
• Calls his account a “gospel”
• Shortest gospel with 16 chapters
– Last five deal with entry into
Jerusalem, passion, death, and
resurrection
– Omits genealogy and birth
•
–
•
–
•
•
–
–
Preparation of public ministry
(1-1:13)
•
John the Baptist, Jesus’
baptism, Jesus' temptation
The Mystery and Ministry of
Jesus
(1:14-8:26)
•
Calling Peter/Andrew,
Beginning miracles, parables
Beginning of the Revelation
(8:27-9:32)
•
Peters confession (not the keys
to kingdom), Prediction of
passion, Transfiguration
The Full Revelation
(9:33-16:20)
•
•
Greatest in the kingdom,
Marriage and divorce,
Jerusalem, Last Supper,
Crucifixion
Two endings (long ending,
short ending)
Mark
Organization
• Presents Jesus as a servant
obedient to the Father and
way of the cross
– “For the Son of Man came not
to be served but to serve”
(10:45)
– No information about Jesus
before baptism
• Jesus has authority
– “…he speaks with authority,
power” (1:27)
– Repeated controls the forces of
evil, darkness, disease, nature
• Jesus speaks of fulfillment,
nearness of kingdom, and
need for repentance and faith
– (1:14-15)
Mark’s Style
• “Son of Mary” “a
carpenter” (not son)
• No conversation w/ Satan
in wilderness, very brief
description
• “Sabbath made for man”
unique (2:27)
• “brothers” and “sisters”
named (6:3)
• Only Gospel that Jesus
admits he doesn’t know
when the end of the world
will come (13:32)
Mark’s style
• Messianic “secret”
stronger in Mark
– (1:34 vs Matt 8:16,
5:43,7:36,8:23)
• Only direct answer to
Sanhedrin :
– “Are you the Christ?”
“I am”
• (14:62)
• “visual gospel”
– (6:39)
• Jesus’ death predicted
3 times and apostles
misunderstand each
time
– (8:31,931:10:33)
Mark’s Style cont.
Mark’s Audience
• Greek speaking residents of
Rome
– Jewish traditions are explained
• (7:1-4)
– Aramaic words are expanded
• (5:41)
Mark’s Message
• Jesus is Son of God (1:1,
15:39)
• Jesus died for many that sins
might be forgiven. (10:45)
– Emphasis on the passion, death
and resurrection
– Last five chapters of 16 deal
with this
• Eternal salvation is real and
through Jesus
The Gospel of Luke
JESUS THE HUMANITARIAN
Gospel of Luke
• Author a doctor and
companion of Paul (obscure)
– Also wrote Acts of Apostles
– Well educated
– Works comprise 28% of
NT
• Gives complete history of
Jesus from birth to
resurrection.
– Uses names to place dates
of event
• Calls his gospel a “narrative”
• Probably written between 5860 AD
• Author ref. in Col 4:14
St. Luke by El Greco
Luke’s Organization
• Prologue (1:1-4)
• Infancy Narrative (1:5- 2:52)
– Genealogy goes back to God
• Preparation for Ministry (3:14:13)
• Ministry in Galilee (4:14 – 9:50)
• Journey to Jerusalem (9:51 –
19:27)
• Teaching in Jerusalem (19:28 –
21:38)
• The Passion Narrative (22:1 –
23:56)
• The Resurrection Narrative
(24:1-53)
Luke’s Style
• Jesus the “social worker”
• Very descriptive covering large time
frame
– Much scrutiny based on historical
comparisons available
– Very accurate in descriptions
geographically, politically, and
nautically.
• Paints Jesus as a teacher, ethically
wise, serene, interested in teaching
virtues among people
• Jesus is powerful and
knowledgeable (4:16 - 22)
• Appears more socially and
politically conscious
Luke’s Style cont.
• Jesus more of a teacher,
critical yet still concerned
about society.
• Jesus’ death calmer w/
different words than
Matt/Mk
• Pilate’s responsibility
mitigated
– Political/social consideration
• Jewish responsibility more
significant
– Gentile perspective
Luke’s Audience
• Gentiles and well
educated based on his
language
• Highlights more political
and social concerns
• Possible concern for the
way Christians will be
perceived
Luke’s Message
• For Theophilus and others to
“…realize the certainty of the
teachings (Christian truths)…”
• Jesus is the Son of Man who
“…came to seek and save what
was lost” (19:10)
– Humanity
– Genealogy goes back to
Adam “son of God”
– “…all who heard were
astounded…”
• Christ shows us our humanity
with his love
• Christ is God
The Gospel of John
JESUS THE DIVINE
Gospel of John
• The Lord’s closest friend
“the beloved”
– Part of the inner circle of
Peter and James
– “Behold your Mother,
behold your son”
• Written after 90 AD
• Covers last 3 years of
Jesus
John’s Organization
• Prologue (1:1-18)
– The Incarnate Word of God
– No baptism, only John the Baptist
• Book of Signs (1:19 – 12:50)
– Wondrous deeds of Jesus
• Book of Glory (13:1 – 20:31)
– Meaning of the passion, death,
and resurrection
• Epilogue: Resurrection
Appearance in Galilee ( 21:125)
John’s Style
• Jesus is God, John explains the
“signs”
– Cana (2:11), Cleansing of Temple
(2:18 – 22)
• Full explanation of the Real
Presence
– The “heart” of the Eucharist
(6:48 - 69)
– The “Light of the World” (9:1 -5)
– The “Glory of God” (11:4)
• The Glory
– “You do not always have me”
(12:8)
– “While you have the light, believe
in the light (12:36)
John’s Style cont.
– “what I am doing you do not
understand but will understand
later” (13:7)
– “Now is the Son of Man
glorified”(13:3)
• Introduces the “Advocate” the spirit
(14:16)
– The spirit that will teach (14:26)
• No “Last Supper” narrative
– Extensive “discourses”
• Passion, crucifixion and death
– “his Mother” at crucifixion and
given to John
– Thomas doubts and is shown
John’s Style cont.
• Epilogue unique
– Third time Jesus revealed
after resurrection
– No ascension described
– Two “conclusions” (20:30)
(21:24)
– Although possibly written
after manuscript complete,
epilogue is in earliest
available manuscripts.
John’s Audience
• Gentile Christians
– Explains Jewish customs
– Describes places in
Palestine
John’s Message
• “…these are written that you
may believe that Jesus is the
Christ, the Son of God, and
that believing you may have
life in His name.” (20:31)
• “It is this disciple who
testifies to these things and
has written them…There are
many other thing Jesus did…I
do not think … world would
contain the books (21:24)
THE FOUR FACES OF JESUS
• Matthew
– The Christian Rabbi and King
intent on catechesis concentrates on
fulfillment of scripture.
• Mark
– Focuses on what Jesus did rather
than what he said, on his suffering
humanness rather than his divinity.
• Luke
– Concentrates on on Jesus’ mercy,
Christian prayer and the poor .
• John
– Presents a majestic, divine Jesus,
and a Kingdom of salvation already
in force.
THE GOSPEL MESSAGE
“…Christ died for our
sins in accordance with
the scriptures…he was
buried…he was raised
on the third day in
accordance with the
scriptures…” 1 Cor
15:3-5)
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Sacred Scripture – New Testament: Gospel