Tuesday December 16, 2014
• OBJ: SWBAT demonstrate knowledge of
political parties.
• Drill: What is the goal of political parties
• HW: Finish review guide, study for quest
tomorrow
1
Answer
• To get their candidates elected
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
2
What Is a Political Party?
• A group of political
activists who organize to
win elections, to operate
the government, and to
determine public policy.
• How are parties
different from interest
groups?
Ralph E. Becker Collection /Smithsonian Institution
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
3
Political Parties vs. Interest Groups
Political Parties
Interest Groups
• Run government
• Select candidates
• Multiple issues
(party platform)
• Influence government
• Support candidates
• Often a single issue
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
4
The Three Components of Political Parties
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
5
Functions of Political Parties
• Recruit candidates to run for elective offices at all levels
of government
• Mobilize citizens to vote and participate in elections
• Bear the responsibility of operating government at all
levels
• Provide organized opposition to the party in power
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6
Where the Voters Are
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7
History of Political Parties
• The Formative Years:
Federalists/Anti-Federalists
(1789-1816)
• The Era of Good Feelings
(1816-1828)
• National Two-Party Rule:
Whigs and Democrats
(1828-1860)
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
© The Granger Collection, New York
8
The Golden Age of Parties
• The Civil War Crisis
• The Post-Civil War Period
(1865-1896)
• “Rum, Romanism,
and Rebellion”
• The Triumph of the
Republicans
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
Courtesy of Smithsonian Institute,
neg #98-4290
9
History of Political Parties
• The Progressive Interlude (1896-1932)
• The New Deal Era (1932-1968)
• An Era of Divided Government (modern period)
• After 1968, the general pattern was often a
Republican president and a Democratic Congress
• 2000 Presidential Election (Red vs. Blue States)
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
• Parties in relative balance
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Election 1896
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11
Election 2004
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12
Election 2008
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13
The Two Major Parties Today
• The parties’ core constituents
• Economic beliefs
• Recent economic convergence?
• Cultural politics
• Democrats have the reputation of
supporting the less-well-off,
Republicans the prosperous
• Regional factors
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
14
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15
Income and Party Identification
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16
Republican and Democratic Issues
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17
The Three Faces of a Party
1. The people who identify with the party or who
regularly vote for the candidates of the party in
general elections
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
18
Three Faces of a Party (cont)
2. Party Organization
• National
•
•
•
•
•
Convention delegates
National Committee
National Chairperson
State party organization
Local (grassroots) organization
• Patronage and city machines
• Local party organizations
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
19
2008 National Conventions
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
20
Three Faces of a Party (cont)
3. The Party in Government
• Divided Government
• The Limits of Party
Unity
• Party Polarization
© Andy Levin/Photo Researchers, Inc.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
21
Ethnic Politics and the Campaign
for the White House
This report discusses the
importance of the Hispanic
vote during the 2008
presidential election.
Airdate: 7/13/2008
Click the icon to open the movie
Video Supplied by Motion Gallery
Video Questions
1. What concerns might Hispanic voters have
that other voting blocks do not share?
2. Why is there a historic rivalry between
Hispanics and blacks in some states?
3. What was Bush’s appeal to Hispanic voters
in the 2004 election?
4. Which party is most likely to appeal to
Hispanic voters in the next election?
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
Why Has the Two Party
System Endured?
• Duality
• Political socialization and practical considerations
• The Winner-Take-All Electoral System
• Presidential Voting
• Popular Election of the Governors and President
• Proportional Representation
• State and Federal Laws Favor the Two Parties
• Ruling parties work to remain in control
• No party organization to join as independents
24
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
The Role of Minor
Parties in U.S. Politics
• Ideological Third Parties
• Green Party
• Splinter Parties
• The Impact of Minor Parties
• Influencing the Major Parties
• Affecting the Outcome of an Election
• Spoiler in 2000 Elections?
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
25
Policies of
Selected
American
Third Parties
Since 1864
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26
Mechanisms of Political Change
• Realignment (occurs about every 32-36 years)
• Civil War era
• 1890s
• Great Depression
• Nixon’s victory in 1972 seemed to be a
realignment, but Watergate changed this
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Mechanisms of Political Change
(cont)
• Minor realignments
• 1980s conservative movement
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•
•
•
Shift of white southerners to Republican party
Northern blue-collar workers to Republican party
Many professionals turn to Democratic party
Religious cleavage
• Makes Republican party more conservative,
Democrats more liberal: but neither party
dominates
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
28
Mechanisms of Political Change
(cont)
• Dealignment: A major drop-off in support for
the parties.
• Independent Voters
• Not-So-Independent Voters
• Tipping (demographically-based change)
• Often due to immigration
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
29
Party Identification:
1937–Present
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30
A New Direction in 2008
• 2008 Elections bring change
• Democrats regain political momentum
• Control White House AND Congress
• Obama wins five key Republican states
• Growing political divide between Democratic and Republican agendas
• Political Maneuvering = Less Responsive Government
• 2010 Elections indicate a new direction?
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
31
Questions for
Critical Thinking
1. Do democratic governments need political
parties? If a democratic government has
political parties, will the structure always be a
two-party system?
2. What factors impact how many political parties
will exist?
3. Is party identification a major factor for voters
in presidential elections?
4. Do political parties make government more
responsive?
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
32
Questions for
Critical Thinking
5. Why is it difficult for independent candidates or
minor party candidates to get elected to
Congress?
6. What inferences can be made about the voting
population through the closely divided elections
of 2000 and 2004?
7. Between 2008 and 2010, how did the interests
and mood of voters change?
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
33
Web Links
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The White House
GOP.com
The Democratic Party
National Republican Senatorial Committee
Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee
The National Republican Congressional
Committee
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
34
Web Links
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Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee
GOP.gov
Townhall.com
National Political Index
The Greens/Green Party USA
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning
35
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Political Parties Quest Review Dec17