Ch. 22 Ordeal of
Reconstruction, 1865-1877
Theme: Johnson’s political blunders and Southern white recalcitrance
led to the imposition of congressional military Reconstruction on the
South. Reconstruction did address difficult issues of reform and racial
justice in the South and achieved some successes, but was ultimately
abandoned, leaving a deep legacy of racial and sectional bitterness.
Theme: During Reconstruction, the Constitution was strengthened with
the Fourteenth (citizenship and equal protection of the laws) and
Fifteenth black voting rights) Amendments, but it was also tested with
the conflicts between the President and Congress that culminated in a
n impeachment process.
Theme: Southern resistance to Reconstruction began immediately
with the sending of ex-rebels to be seated in Congress and continued
with the creation of violently oppressive groups like the Ku Klux Kan.
Although forced to make some concessions, Southern “ Redeemers”
successfully outlasted the Congressional Reconstruction efforts.
I. Conditions after the Civil War
A.
The country was a singular nation
now.
1.
2.
B.
New political and economic centers—
all in north/west
Stronger federal government
Rebuilding the South
1.
2.
3.
Economic ruins
Impact of Emancipation on southern
life
Federal Intervention
a.
b.
c.
C.
Scalawags/Carpetbaggers
13th Amendment
Freedman’s Bureau
Republicans lead the North
1.
2.
3.
President Johnson is new leader
Stronger alliance between business
and govt.
Motivated by racism (of black free
man) and revenge (of Democrats)
II. Presidential Reconstruction: A
Moderate Approach
A.
Lincoln’s 10% Plan
1.
2.
10% of voters in 1860 election,
obey emancipation, and state.
Response of GOP: Wade Davis
Bill, 1866
a.
b.
c.
B.
50%, Iron-clad Oath,
constitutional convention, and
Feds OK otherwise “conquered
provinces”
Revealed differences between
Congress and Johnson
Also revealed early split in GOP
Johnson’s Plan
1.
2.
3.
Similar to Lincoln
Disenfranchised some whites,
pardons others, and state
conventions with 13th.
Veto Freedman Bureau, 1866
III. Congressional Reconstruction
A.
GOP Resentment to White Supremacy
1.
2.
3.
B.
Ex-Confeds in Congress!
Black Codes
KKK violence
Civil Rights Bill, 1866 (Transition from
Presidential to Congressional Recon.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Response to Johnson’s Reconstruction
Black citizenship and destroy BC
Became 14th Amendment, 1866
1866 Midterm elections -2/3 GOP
a.
b.
5.
6.
C.
Military Reconstruction Act, 1867
Reconstruction Act, 1867 (“5, 14th, Full”)
Johnson is Impeached, 1867
1.
Office of Tenure Act
a.
2.
D.
T. Stevens and Ch. Sumner
Moderates in majority
15th
1.
2.
Edwin Stanton, Sec War
Purchase of Alaska, 1867
Amendment, 1869
No Women!
Intimidation and loopholes
Impeachment Trial
by Theodore R. Davis in Harpers Weekly
Interesting note: Johnson did not attend but did win
election as a Senator in 1874 and made an emotional
return to the Senate as junior Senator from Tennessee.
IV. End of Reconstruction
A.
B.
Civil Rights Act, 1875
National Concerns
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
C.
Thomas Nast, Harpers Weekly,
1876.The disputed presidential
election returns from FL, SC, and
LA are represented by the new
Sport of football, introduced in 1876
By the Ivy League. Until 1881, the
Ball was not passed!
Compromise 1877
1.
2.
D.
Panic of 1873
Women’s Rights
Political corruption
Gilded Age
Purchase of Alaska
1870 ex-Confederacy back
Hayes (GOP) v. Tilden (Demo)
Impact
1.
2.
3.
Decline of Ex branch
Rise of Solid South
“Invisible Empire of the South”:
State Governments
a.
b.
c.
Infringement of privileges
Jim Crow Laws
Lynchings
Putting Things in Order
(Put the following events in correct order by numbering them 1 to 5)
1. ____ Constitution is amended to guarantee former slaves the right to vote
2. ____ Lincoln announces a plan to rapidly restore southern states to the
Union
3. ____ Northern troops are finally withdrawn from the South, and Southern
state governments are re-constituted without federal constraint
4. ____ An unpopular antiradical president escapes conviction and removal
from office by one vote
5. ____ Johnson’s attempt to restore the South to the Union is overturned
because of congressional hostility to ex-Confederates and southern
passage of the Black Codes
Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
4
1
5
3
2