Regional and National Growth
Mr. Stikes
SSUSH7 Students will explain the process of
economic growth, its regional and national impact in
the first half of the 19th century, and the different
responses to it.
a. Explain the impact of the Industrial Revolution as seen
in Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin and his
development of interchangeable parts for muskets.
b. Describe the westward growth of the United States;
include the emerging concept of Manifest Destiny.
c. Describe reform movements, specifically temperance,
abolitionism, and public school.
d. Explain women’s efforts to gain suffrage; include
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the Seneca Falls
Conference.
e. Explain Jacksonian Democracy, expanding suffrage, the
rise of popular political culture, and the development of
American nationalism.
The Industrial Revolution
in America
a. Explain the impact of the Industrial
Revolution as seen in Eli Whitney’s
invention of the cotton gin and his
development of interchangeable parts
for muskets.
Industrial Revolution in the U.S.
• British Origins:
– Protected trade secrets
• Samuel Slater (1768-1835)
– Brought technology to America
• Rise of the Factory System
Eli Whitney (1765-1825)
• American Inventor
• Know for:
– Cotton Gin
– Interchangeable parts
Cotton Gin
• Mechanical
device that
removes seeds
from cotton
Cotton Gin
• Cotton
production
increased
Interchangeable Parts
• Parts are identical
– Allows parts from one machine to be replaced
by parts from another
• Eli Whitney
DID YOU KNOW: Interchangeability
was probably developed by French
gunsmith Honoré Blanc around 1790.
– Government contract for rifles
– Did not deliver – Why?
Manifest Destiny
b. Describe the westward growth
of the United States; include the
emerging concept of Manifest
Destiny.
Westward Growth of the U.S.
U.S. Expansion
• Into Florida
– Adams-Onís Treaty (1819): acquired from Spain
• Into the West
– Texas (1845): Republic of Texas annexed
– Oregon Territory (1846): border settled w/ Britain
– Southwest (1848 & 1856): Ceded from Mexico
Interactive Map
Texas
• Originally owned by Mexico
• Independence from Mexico: 1835
– Annexed by U.S. – 1845
• Major Figures/Events:
– Sam Houston – Texan leader/ 1st Texan Pres.
– Stephen Austin – Large landowner, organized
independence movement
– Santa Anna – Mexican dictator/Pres
– Alamo – Battle, in San Antonio, all Texans dead
Manifest Destiny
• Belief that America’s destiny was to control
all of North America
• Purpose:
To spread…
–
–
–
–
Christianity
Civilization
Technology
Democracy
Reform Movements
c. Describe reform movements,
specifically temperance,
abolitionism, and public school.
To Form Again
• What is reform?
• Examples of reform movements:
– Against use of alcohol
– Against slavery
– For women’s right to vote
Temperance
• Social movement
• Goal:
– Ban consumption of alcoholic beverages
Temperance
• Major Temperance Organizations:
– American Temperance Society
– Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
“The multitude, with few exceptions, drank rum.
Ministers drank, churchmen drank, men drank,
women drank; and children too. Every merchant
sold it. It was a leading article of trade…crops
could not be gotten in, or out, or off the field
without it. It was as necessary for mechanical
business, as water power, or tools. No marriage
vows were complete without it, and no funeral
party could mourn if it were wanting, it was as
necessary to bury the dead, as a coffin, or a
shroud. No favored parent, could rejoice over a
new born babe, without plenty to drink. No
building could be raised but by rum. It was an
absolute necessity…at parties of all kinds…the
Autobiography of Charles
sweetener of social intercourse”
Harding, 1869.
Abolitionism
• Social movement
• Goal:
– Ban slavery
• Major Figures:
– William Lloyd Garrison
– Frederick Douglass
– Lyman Beecher
William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879)
• Abolitionist leader
– Advocated violence to end
slavery
• Started The Liberator, a
famous abolitionist newspaper
Assenting to the "self-evident truth"
maintained in the American Declaration
of Independence, "that all men are
created equal, and endowed by their
Creator with certain inalienable rights -among which are life, liberty and the
pursuit of happiness," I shall
strenuously contend for the immediate
enfranchisement of our slave
population.
Inaugural Editorial from William Lloyd Garrison’s The Liberator, 1 January 1831
Frederick Douglass (1818-1895)
• Abolitionist leader
– Freed slave
• Worked for William
Lloyd Garrison
– Garrison = too militant
• Started new
newspaper: North
Star
Lyman Beecher (1775-1863)
• Abolitionist leader
– Preacher
• Father of Harriet
Beecher Stowe
Public Schools
• Social movement
• Goal:
– Provide free education to all
• Major Figures:
– Horace Mann
Horace Mann (1796-1859)
• Educational reformer
– 1st Massachusetts Secretary for the State
Board of Education
• Ideas:
– Basic education should be free
• The government should pay, not individual students
– Free public libraries should be found
throughout the country
– Teachers should be well trained
Education…will draw property after it
by the strongest of all attractions…
Education then, beyond all other
devices of human origin, is a great
equalizer of the conditions of men, the balance wheel of the social
machinery…an ignorant man is but a
little better than a swine…
Horace Mann, Twelfth Annual Report of Horace Mann as Secretary of
Massachusetts State Board of Education, reprinted in H.S. Commanger,
Documents of American History (1943) p. 315-317.
Women’s Rights
d. Explain women’s efforts to gain
suffrage; include Elizabeth Cady
Stanton and the Seneca Falls
Conference.
Suffrage
• Social movement
• Goal:
– Provide women with the right to vote
Women’s Suffrage
• Reform movement
• Goal: Provide women with equal rights
– Why start with the right to vote?
Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902)
• Leader in abolition and
temperance movements
• Helped organize Seneca
Falls Conference in 1848
– Wrote their “Declaration of
Sentiments”
• Helped found the National
Woman Suffrage Association
Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906)
• Leader of women’s suffrage movement
– Why was voting so
important?
• Helped found the
National Woman
Suffrage Association
Lucretia Mott (1793-1880)
• Early leader of Women’s Suffrage
movement
– Also active in abolitionism
• Quaker
– Believed in equality
• Gave opening and closing address at
Seneca Falls Conference
Seneca Falls Conference
(July 19-20, 1848)
• Meeting in Seneca Falls, New York
• Major Accomplishment:
– Declaration of Sentiments
• Leaders:
– Elizabeth Cady Stanton
– Lucretia Mott
DID YOU KNOW: Frederick
Douglass, a freed slave and abolition
advocate, also attended this meeting.
He was the editor of a newspaper, the
Rochester North Star
Jacksonian Democracy
e. Explain Jacksonian Democracy,
expanding suffrage, the rise of
popular political culture, and the
development of American
nationalism.
Election of 1824
• All men who ran were
Democratic-Republicans
• Split along regional lines:
– William Crawford (GA)
– John C. Calhoun (SC)
– John Quincy Adams (MA)
– Henry Clay (KY)
– Andrew Jackson (TN)
Election of 1824
• “Corrupt Bargain”
– No candidate won majority of electoral votes
– House of Representatives elected John
Quincy Adams as President
• Role of Henry Clay
John Quincy Adams (1767-1848)
President of the United States: 1825-1829 (6th)
• Son of John Adams
• Popular in New
England
– Served as Secretary
of State under
Monroe
Andrew Jackson (1767-1845)
President of the United States: 1829-1837 (7th)
• Famous war hero
– Battle of New
Orleans (1815)
– Occupied Florida
(1818)
• Populist
– Man of the people
Jacksonian Democracy
• Belief that the people should govern
• President = Representative of all Americans
• Move towards democracy and away from
republicanism
Expanding Suffrage
• Voting requirements were relaxed
– Almost all white males could vote
• Record for Minorities:
– Slaves?
– Native Americans?
– Women?
Rise of Popular Political Culture
• Election of 1828
– Mud-slinging
Development of American Nationalism
• Self-made man
– “pull yourself up by your bootstraps”
• Tough
– “Old Hickory”
– Strong / Warrior
– “Hunters of Kentucky”
Major Events in Jackson’s Presidency
• Native American Policy
– Indian Removal Act (1830)
• Nullification
– John C. Calhoun & South Carolina
• 2nd Bank of the United States
– Charter renewal?
– Specie Circular
Native American Policy
• Indian Removal Act (1830)
– Relocated Native Americans to west of the
Mississippi
• Resistance
– Armed:
– In Court:
Journey of Cherokee to reservations
in the Indian Territory; ~ 4,000 died
Trail of Tears, Robert Lindneux, 1942
Trail of Tears
Nullification
• Doctrine that says states do not have to
follow or enforce laws they believe are
unconstitutional
• Nullification Crisis (1828):
– Import tariffs on some items doubled
– Hurt southern states
– South Carolina threatened secession
2nd Bank of the United States
• Charter renewal?
– Henry Clay – pushed for early renewal
– Jackson veto
• Specie Circular
– U.S. Treasury could only accept specie as
payment for land
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Regional and National Growth