Dominance and
What political party
dominated American
politics in the early 1800’s?
•DemocraticRepublican Party
What factors caused the
United States to expand its
territory to the Pacific Ocean
before the Civil War?
• Economic and strategic
(military defense) interests
• “Manifest Destiny”
What territory did the United
States purchase during
Jefferson’s presidency?
From what country did
President Jefferson
purchase the
Louisiana Territory?
Who did President
Jefferson send to explore
the Louisiana Territory?
• Meriwether Lewis
• William Clark
How did the Louisiana
Territory affect the size
of the United States?
•Doubled it
Who served as guide
of the Lewis and Clark
What two countries
fought in the
War of 1812?
•United States
•Great Britain
Who was president
during the
War of 1812?
•James Madison
Why did France and Great
Britain interfere with
American trade during the
Napoleonic War?
• Neither country wanted its
enemy to trade with the
United States during the war.
Define impressment.
•The practice of
drafting sailors by
Why did the British navy stop
and board American ships
and impress American
• The British navy
needed sailors to fight
against the French.
How did the Jefferson
administration respond
to British impressment
of American sailors?
•Passed the Embargo
What does
embargo mean?
•Refuse to trade
What were two provisions
of the Embargo Act?
• 1) No American ship could
leave an American port to go to
a foreign port.
• 2) No foreign ship could load a
cargo at an American city.
What American region was
hurt by the Embargo Act
and why was this true?
• The New England states
• The New England
economy depended on
shipping and trade.
Which political party
opposed the
Embargo Act?
•The Federalists
Which state governments
threatened to nullify the
Embargo Act?
•New England states
What does it mean to
nullify a law?
•Void it
•Wipe it out
What did President
James Madison do with
the Embargo Act?
•Replaced it with the
Non-Intercourse Act
What did the
Non-Intercourse Act
• Made trade with Great
Britain and France illegal
Why did the
Non-Intercourse Act
• British navy impressed
American sailors
• British navy interfered with
American shipping rights as a
neutral nation
Why did Western
congressmen want war
with Great Britain?
• 1) British interference with
American shipping
• 2) Western expansionism
Who were the
War Hawks?
• Western congressmen
who wanted war with
Great Britain
What did the War Hawks believe
the British were encouraging on
the western frontier of the
United States?
• Indian attacks on American
settlers who lived on the
western frontier
Who led the
War Hawks?
•Henry Clay
What did the War Hawks
hope the U.S. would
gain by winning the
War of 1812?
• More territory in the West
• Canada
What president was
responsible for declaring war
on Great Britain in 1812?
•James Madison
What war lasted
from 1812 to 1815?
•The War of 1812
What two countries
fought the War of
•The United States
•Great Britain
What region was against
the War of 1812?
•New England
What political party was
against the War of 1812?
How did the Federalists
respond to President
Madison’s desire to declare
war on Great Britain?
The Federalists:
• 1) Opposed the war
• 2) Talked about secession
• 3) Proposed constitutional
amendments that were not
acted upon
How did the Federalist Party
want to limit the power of
Congress by constitutional
• Limit Congress’ power to:
1) impose embargoes
2) restrict commerce
3) make war
4) admit new states
What was the result of
Federalist criticism of the
War of 1812?
• The Federalist Party
• The Federalists stopped
being an effective political
party on the national level
What were two results of the
American belief that the U.S.
won the War of 1812?
• 1) The U.S. claimed the
Oregon territory
• 2) More American settlers
moved into Florida
What territory did
the United States
acquire in 1819?
From what country
did the United States
acquire Florida?
What two countries
signed the
Adams-Onis Treaty?
• The United States
• Spain
What territory did the
Adams-Onis Treaty give
the United States?
The Adams-Onis Treaty
What issue did the
Monroe Doctrine
•Foreign Policy
What set forth the basic
principles of American
foreign policy from 1823
until the end of the 19th
• The Monroe Doctrine
What were the
4 points of the
• No more European colonies in
the Americas
• Countries in Western Hemisphere
were republics; countries in
Europe were monarchies
• If European countries threatened
any country in Americas, then
they threatened the United States
• U.S. would stay out of European
What continents are
in the Western
•North America
•South America
What is a republic?
• A Representative
• The People elect
representatives to make
the laws
Who rules in
•Kings and
What was the most
important point of the
Monroe Doctrine?
• European countries
should stay out of the
affairs of the Western
What precedent did the
Monroe Doctrine set for
American presidents ?
• American presidents would
consider it a threat to the
United States, if European
countries meddled with
countries in the Western
According to the Monroe
Doctrine, what would the U.S.
use to protect its interests in
the Western Hemisphere?
•Military Force
What were two trends in
American life during the
first half of the
19th century?
• Westward Movement
• Economic
Why did Americans move
west during the first half of
the 19 century?
• Economic opportunity
• Wanted land, both to own
and to farm
What two transportation
improvements encouraged
westward movement and
economic development?
Who invented
the cotton gin?
•Eli Whitney
What did the
cotton gin do?
•Separated cotton
seeds from the
cotton fiber
What did the cotton gin
cause to spread
throughout the Deep
• The “Cotton Kingdom”
based on AfricanAmerican slavery
Did the cotton gin
increase or decrease
the demand for
What resulted from
American immigration
into Texas?
• An armed revolt
against Mexican rule
What happened at
the Battle of the
• The Mexican army
killed all the men
defending the Alamo.
What later happened
when the Texans
defeated the Mexican
• Texas gained its
independence from
What action did the
U.S. eventually take
in regard to Texas?
• Annexed Texas
• Added Texas to the
What idea provided
political support for
territorial expansion?
•Manifest Destiny
What was Manifest
• The belief that it was God’s
will for the United States to
stretch from the Atlantic to
the Pacific Ocean
What war lasted
from 1846 to 1848?
•The Mexican War
What two countries
fought in the Mexican
•The United States
Who won the
Mexican War?
•The United
What was the
Mexican Cession?
• The territory the United
States got from Mexico
at the end of the
Mexican War
What present-day
states were part of
the Mexican
• California
• Nevada
• Utah
• Arizona
• part of Colorado
• part of New Mexico