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Chapter Introduction
Section 1: The Early Years
Section 2: The War Continues
Section 3: The War Moves West and South
Section 4: The War is Won
Visual Summary
The Early Years
Essential Question What challenges did
the American revolutionaries face at the start
of the war?
The War Continues
Essential Question How did the
United States gain allies and aid during the
Revolutionary War?
The War Moves West and South
Essential Question How did fighting in the
West and South affect the course of the
Revolutionary War?
The War is Won
Essential Question How did the battle of
Yorktown lead to American independence?
What challenges did the American
revolutionaries face at the start of
the war?
Reading Guide
Content Vocabulary
• mercenary
• recruit
Academic Vocabulary
• transfer
• previous
Reading Guide (cont.)
Key People and Events
• Hessian
• Lemuel Hayes
• Molly Pitcher
• Peter Salem
• General William Howe
• Benedict Arnold
• Nathan Hale
• General Horatio Gates
The Opposing Sides
The British and American forces
each had advantages and
disadvantages during the war for
American independence.
The Opposing Sides (cont.)
• British advantages in the war included:
– The strongest navy in the world
– An experienced and well-trained army
– Great wealth
– A much larger population
The Opposing Sides (cont.)
• American disadvantages in the war included:
– The absence of a regular army and
strong navy
– A short supply of weapons and
ammunition
– Some colonists, such as the Loyalists,
did not support the war for
independence.
The Opposing Sides (cont.)
• American advantages in the war included:
– The ability to fight on their own ground
– Determination to gain freedom from Britain
– The British relied on Hessian mercenaries
to fight for them.
– George Washington as a leader
The Opposing Sides (cont.)
• Because Colonists were unwilling to
transfer power to their own Continental
Congress, Congress experienced difficulty
enlisting soldiers and raising money to fight
the war.
• The Congress established the Continental
Army but depended on the states to recruit
soldiers.
The Opposing Sides (cont.)
• The best officers in the Continental Army
were veterans of previous wars.
• Some women, such as Molly Pitcher,
fought with the Patriot forces.
One of the Patriots’ greatest
advantages was which of the
following?
A. A larger population
B. Mercenaries fighting
on their side
C. A stronger navy
D. George Washington as
their military leader
A.
B.
C.
D.
A
B
C
D
Patriot Defeats and Victories
After suffering defeat at the Battle of
Long Island, the Americans rallied
and won victories at Trenton and
Princeton.
Patriot Defeats and Victories (cont.)
• The British commander, General William
Howe, hoped the sheer size of his army
would convince the Patriots to give up.
• Before being hanged as a spy, Patriot
Nathan Hale said, “I only regret that I have
but one life to lose for my country.”
• As many as 5,000 African Americans—such
as Lemuel Hayes and Peter Salem—
joined the Patriots.
Patriot Defeats and Victories (cont.)
• On Christmas night 1776, Washington and
2,400 troops crossed the Delaware River
and surprised the enemy at Trenton the
next day.
Historians estimate that how many
African Americans joined the Patriots
to fight?
A. 500
B. 1,000
C. 5,000
D. 10,000
A.
B.
C.
D.
A
B
C
D
A British Plan for Victory
The British plan to separate New
England from the Middle Colonies
was foiled at the Battle of Saratoga.
A British Plan for Victory (cont.)
• The British wanted to gain control of the
Hudson River, which would separate New
England from the Middle Colonies.
• The British captured Philadelphia but were
stopped in New York by American forces
led by Benedict Arnold.
• In the Battle of Saratoga, American troops
under the command of General Horatio
Gates surrounded the British troops and
their plan to separate the colonies failed.
At which battle was the British plan to
separate the colonies foiled?
A. The Battle of Saratoga
B. The Battle of Trenton
C. The Battle of Philadelphia
D. The Battle of Burgoyne
A.
B.
C.
D.
A
B
C
D
How did the United States gain
allies and aid during the
Revolutionary War?
Reading Guide
Content Vocabulary
• desert
• inflation
Academic Vocabulary
• aid
• issue
Reading Guide (cont.)
Key People and Events
• Bernardo de Gálvez
• Marquis de Lafayette
• Friedrich von Steuben
• Juan de Miralles
• Judith Sargeant Murray
• Abigail Adams
Gaining Allies
Even with aid from other nations
and individuals, the Patriots had
difficulty financing their war for
independence.
Gaining Allies (cont.)
• Realizing that the Americans had a chance
of defeating Britain, the French declared war
on Britain and sent money, equipment, and
troops to aid the American patriots.
• Spain also declared war on Britain in 1779
and the Spanish governor of Louisiana,
Bernardo de Gálvez, raised an army.
Gaining Allies (cont.)
• Many men deserted the Continental Army
during a winter of terrible suffering at Valley
Forge. However, the Continental Army did
survive the winter.
• Among the leaders at Valley Forge was a
French noble, the Marquis de Lafayette.
• Friedrich von Steuben, a former army
officer from Prussia, also came to help
General Washington.
Gaining Allies (cont.)
• Juan de Miralles arrived in Philadelphia in
1778 as a representative of Spain.
• To pay for the war, the Congress and the
states printed hundreds of millions of dollars’
worth of paper money, which led to inflation.
What is the main reason that European
nations helped the Americans fight for
independence?
A. They knew America would
become a superpower one day.
B. The American politicians
promised them money in return.
C. They admired their cause.
D. They disliked the British.
A.
B.
C.
D.
A
B
C
D
Life on the Home Front
The ideals of liberty and freedom
that inspired the American
Revolution carried through to the
issues of women’s interests and
slavery.
Life on the Home Front (cont.)
• The ideals of liberty and freedom that
inspired the American Revolution also
caused some women to question their place
and treatment in American society.
– Judith Sargeant Murray argued that
women’s minds are as good as men’s.
– Abigail Adams also stood up for women’s
interests.
Life on the Home Front (cont.)
• The Revolutionary War ideals also inspired
some white Americans to question slavery;
however, the issue of slavery would remain
unsettled for many years.
• Loyalists who remained in the United States
faced difficult times.
Which of the following states did NOT
attempt to abolish slavery around the
time of the American Revolution?
A. Vermont
B. Virginia
C. New Hampshire
D. Pennsylvania
A.
B.
C.
D.
A
B
C
D
How did fighting in the West and
South affect the course of the
Revolutionary War?
Reading Guide
Content Vocabulary
• blockade
• privateer
• guerrilla warfare
Academic Vocabulary
• impact
• sustain
Reading Guide (cont.)
Key People and Events
• Joseph Brant
• George Rogers Clark
• John Paul Jones
• Battle of Moore’s Creek
• General Charles Cornwallis
• Francis Marion
• Nathanael Greene
War in the West
The British, along with their Native
American allies, led attacks against
settlers in the West.
War in the West (cont.)
• Some Native Americans helped the Patriots,
but more—including Mohawk chief
Joseph Brant—sided with the British, who
seemed less of a threat than the Americans.
• George Rogers Clark’s victory at
Vincennes strengthened the American
position in the West.
With whom did most Native Americans
side during the American Revolution?
A. Britain
B. America
A. A
B. B
Glory at Sea
The American navy and American
privateers had some successes
against the powerful British navy.
Glory at Sea (cont.)
• Britain’s navy formed a blockade,
preventing supplies and reinforcements from
reaching the Continental Army.
• Because the American navy was too weak to
operate effectively, the Second Continental
Congress authorized approximately 2,000
ships to sail as privateers.
• A daring American naval officer,
John Paul Jones, raided British ports and
became a naval hero to the American
Patriots.
Of the thirteen American warships built to
fight the British, how many actually made it
to sea?
A. One
B. Two
C. Five
D. Ten
A.
B.
C.
D.
A
B
C
D
Struggles in the South
Great Britain hoped that a strong
campaign in the South would help
the war.
Struggles in the South (cont.)
• In 1776 the Americans crushed Loyalists at
the Battle of Moore’s Creek, near
Wilmington, North Carolina.
• Hoping to use their sea power and the
support of the Loyalists to win decisive
victories, General Charles Cornwallis
commanded the British forces in the
Southern states.
Struggles in the South (cont.)
• Francis Marion successfully used the hitand-run technique of guerrilla warfare
against the British in South Carolina.
• In October 1780, Nathanael Greene’s army
was forced to retreat from Guilford
Courthouse in North Carolina, but the British
sustained great losses in the process of
fighting.
Francis Marion, a successful guerrilla
leader, was known by what nickname?
A. Hiding Francis
B. Merry Marion
C. The Swamp Fox
D. The Mountain Man
A.
B.
C.
D.
A
B
C
D
How did the Battle of Yorktown lead
to American independence?
Reading Guide
Content Vocabulary
• ratify
• ambush
Academic Vocabulary
• strategy
• pursue
Reading Guide (cont.)
Key People and Events
• Comte de Rochambeau
• François de Grasse
• Battle of Yorktown
• Benjamin Franklin
• John Adams
• John Jay
• Treaty of Paris
Victory at Yorktown
Washington’s complicated battle
plan led to the important American
victory at Yorktown.
Victory at Yorktown (cont.)
• General Washington changed his battle plan
when he learned that Admiral
François de Grasse, the French naval
commander, was heading toward
Chesapeake Bay instead of New York.
• Washington’s secret strategy was to attack
the British at Yorktown, Virginia, with the
help of French soldiers commanded by
Comte de Rochambeau.
Victory at Yorktown (cont.)
• The Patriots won the Battle of Yorktown
which led to the British surrender.
Which song was played as the British
marched between rows of French and
American troops to hand over their
weapons?
A. “The National Anthem”
B. “The Battle Hymn of the
Republic”
C. “Yankee Doodle”
D. “The Noble Duke of York”
A.
B.
C.
D.
A
B
C
D
Independence
The Patriots’ spirit and resolve
helped them win independence.
Independence (cont.)
• The Patriot victory at Yorktown convinced
the British that the war was too costly to
pursue.
• The Americans sent Benjamin Franklin,
John Adams, and John Jay to Paris to
negotiate a treaty with the British.
• The American Congress ratified the
preliminary treaty in April 1783, and the final
Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3,
1783.
Independence (cont.)
• Washington urged Congress to fund the
American soldiers’ pensions, preventing a
revolt, and then resigned and retired to
Mount Vernon, Virginia.
• There are several reasons why the
Americans won the Revolutionary War:
– They fought on their own land while the
British had to bring troops and supplies
from thousands of miles away.
Independence (cont.)
– They knew the local terrain and where to
lay an ambush.
– They had help from other nations, such as
France and Spain.
– The Revolution was a people’s movement
with the outcome depending on the
determination and spirit of the Patriots.
• The American Revolution inspired the
French Revolution and revolution in the
French colony of Saint Domingue.
Which of the following is NOT a provision
of the Treaty of Paris?
A. The Loyalists would have a
year to move to British territory.
B. Britain would withdraw its troops
from American territory.
C. Americans could fish in the
waters off the coast of Canada.
D. British merchants could collect
debts the Americans owed them.
A.
B.
C.
D.
A
B
C
D
mercenary
paid soldier who serve in the army
of a foreign country
recruit
to enlist soldiers in the army
transfer
to move from one place to another
previous
earlier, coming before
desert
to leave without permission
inflation
a continuous rise in the price of goods
and services
aid
to help
issue
point or matter of discussion
blockade
cut off an area by means of troops or
warships to stop supplies or people
from coming in or going out; to close
off a country’s ports
privateer
armed private ship licensed to attack
merchant ships
guerrilla warfare
a hit-and-run technique used in
fighting a war; fighting by small bands
of warriors using tactics such as
sudden ambushes
impact
effect or influence
sustain
to suffer or experience
ratify
to give official approval to
ambush
a surprise attack
strategy
plan of action
pursue
to continue
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