Chapter 16 The Civil War
(1861-1865)
Section 3 Life During the War
What change in daily life do you think would be
most significantly during wartime?
A. Women would enter the
workforce in ways they
had not done before.
D.
0%
0%
0%
D
A
B
C
D
C
0%
A
C.
A.
B.
People would have to give up
some luxuries and even necessities. C.
Travel would be limited and dangerous.
D.
B
B. Education and school would
be suspended for many children.
What social, political, and economic
changes resulted from the war?
Life at Home
• Many teenagers served
in the military
• Left family, friends, and
school
• Schools closed during
the war in some areas
• Especially where battles
were
• Schools and churches
served as hospitals for
the wounded
Shortages in the South
• Life in the South changed
dramatically
• Both armies were in the
South, therefore the South
suffered the greatest
destruction
• Families lost their homes
and crops because of
soldiers
• The South depended on the
outside world “for
everything from a hairpin to
a toothpick, and from a
cradle to a coffin”
• As the war went on,
shortages of food, supplies,
and even household items
became common
Treating the Sick and Wounded
• 1000s of women served as
nurses
• Many believed that nursing
was for men, and it was
improper for women to tend to
the bodies of unknown men
• Strong minded women
disregarded these objections
• Mary Edwards Walker
became the first woman army
surgeon and later won the
Congressional Medal of Honor
• Dorothea Dix convinced
officials to allow women to
work as nurses and also
recruited women to serve
• Clara Barton worked with
wounded soldiers
• Sally Thompson established
a hospital for soldiers in
Richmond, Virginia
Spies
• Women also served as
spies
• For both sides
• Belle Boyd informed
Confederate generals of
Union army movements
• Some women disguised
themselves as men and
became soldiers
• Loretta Janeta Velazquez
fought for the South at the
1st Bull Run and Shiloh
• Velazquez later became a
spy
• Harriet Tubman served as
a spy and scout for the
Union
•
•
•
•
•
•
In
the
Hands
of
the
Enemy
Both sides had prison
camps
Prisoners could keep a
blanket and a cup
Volunteers distributed
bread and soup
Food shortages led to
soldiers getting little or
no food
Andersonville prison, in
Georgia, was
overcrowded and many
died (mostly from
disease)
Union prison camps
(like Elmira, New York)
were no better
Field Hospitals
• Hospitals were set up
by battlefields
• Doctors struggled to
care for all the
wounded
• Diseases often killed
more soldiers than
battle
• Soldiers were crowded
together and drank
unsanitary water
• Smallpox, dysentery,
typhoid, and
pneumonia were very
dangerous
In the South
• Many Southerners
opposed the war
• After 2 year, the war had
taken huge amounts of
food, materials, and money
• Bread riots erupted in the
South because of hungry
people
• A mob, of mostly women
and children, met in
Richmond for a peaceful
protest
• Soon they started
smashing shop windows
and stealing food
In the North
• People in the North also
opposed the war
(Democratic Party)
• The Democratic Party split
into the War Democrats
and the Peace Democrats
• War Democrats were
critical of how the
Republicans ran the war
• The Peace Democrats
wanted an immediate end
to fighting
• The Peace Democrats
were seen by some as
traitors and called
Copperheads
•
•
•
•
•
•
Jail
Without
Trial
To deal with war opponents in
the North, Lincoln suspended
habeas corpus
People could be put in jail
without a trial
The Constitution provides that
habeas corpus can be
suspended only “when in
cases or rebellion or invasion,
the public safety may require
it”
1000s were put in jail
When people spoke out
against the suspension, they
were labeled treasonous
Copperheads
In the South, Jefferson Davis
also suspended Habeas
Corpus
Draft Laws- The South
• Both sides had trouble
recruiting troops
• 1862- Confederate
Congress passed a draft
law
• Required able-bodied
white men between 18 and
35 had to serve for 3 years
• Later changed to age 17 to
50
• A man could also hire a
substitute to serve for him
• Later, if a man had more
than 20 slaves, he did not
have to serve
Draft Laws- In the North
• The North offered a
bounty for volunteers
(at first)
• March 1863- The
Union also passed a
draft law
• All men 20 to 45 had
to register
• They too could hire a
substitute or could
pay $300
• People in the North
and South
complained it was “a
rich man’s war and a
poor man’s fight”
Draft Laws
• Antidraft feelings led to riots
• New York City: July 1863members of the working
class (Many Irish
immigrants) attacked
government and military
buildings
• They attacked African
Americans
• Many white workers
opposed the Emancipation
Proclamation fearing loss of
jobs
• After four days of terror,
more than 100 were dead
• Federal troops had to stop
the riots
Economic Effects
• The economies of both
were strained
• The North had greater
resources, and was
able to cope better with
the cost of the war
• The two governments
paid for the war in three
ways
• 1. Sold bonds promising
high interest
• 2. Imposed new taxes,
including income taxes
• 3. Printed money
• Northern money was
called greenbacks
because of its color
The North Prospers
• Northern industry
prospered from the war
• They produced guns,
ammunition, shoes, and
uniforms
• Farmers sold crops to
supply food for the troops
• However prices rose
faster than wages
because goods were in
high demand
• This inflation caused a
great hardship for
working people
• Still, the Northern
economy boomed during
the war years
Economic Troubles in the South
• In the South, the war
destroyed farmland
and railroad lines
• The blockade
prevented the
shipping of trade
goods
• Vital materials could
not reach the
Confederates
• Salt was so
desperately needed
that women scraped
the floors of
smokehouses to
remove it
• Food shortages led to
riots
• Inflation was worse in
the South
What social, political, and economic changes
resulted from the war?
-Social- Women’s roles changed during the was as
they had more opportunity and responsibility
-Political- There were many political disagreements
in the North and South over the war and the
economy
-Economic- The war was expensive for the North
and South, and both sides had to try to raise money
to pay for the war, as well as establish new policies
for keeping the economy going
No one under the age of 18
could join the army.
se
50%
Fa
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50%
Tr
ue
A. True
B. False
The South was self-sufficient
because of its many resources.
se
50%
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50%
Tr
ue
A. True
B. False
Belle Boyd spied for the South.
se
50%
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l
50%
Tr
ue
A. True
B. False
se
Fa
l
Tr
ue
Habeas corpus guarantees accused
individuals the right to a hearing before
being jailed.
A. True
50%
50%
B. False
Providing food for the soldiers made
Southern farmers very wealthy.
se
50%
Fa
l
50%
Tr
ue
A. True
B. False
Which woman fought for the Confederacy at
the First Battle of Bull Run?
A. Rose O'Neal
Greenhow
B. Loretta Janeta
Velázquez
C. Belle Boyd
D. Harriet Tubman
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Who was the Southerner who established a
hospital for soldiers in Richmond, Virginia?
Sally Tompkins
Robert E. Lee
William Sheppard
Clara Barton
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The law that required men between certain
ages to serve in the army for three years
was the
A. corpus.
25% 25% 25% 25%
B. bounty.
C. draft.
D. habeas corpus.
The worst disturbance concerning
opposition to draft laws took place in
Washington, D.C.
Richmond.
Charleston.
New York City.
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To raise money for the war, the
North printed
greenbacks.
paper checks.
handbills.
promissory notes.
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