19TH CENTURY NATIONALISM
THE
REVOLUTIONS
OF 1830 AND
BEYOND
GREECE
• THE WAR FOR GREEK
LIBERATION: Why was
the liberation of Greece
from Ottoman control a
facet of the romantic
movement?
GREECE
• A BRIEF RE-CAP: Greece had been part of the Byzantine
Empire. It suffered invasions by Goths, Huns, Slavs from
the 5th to the 7th centuries. Urban life was and Greek
civilization was essentially brought to an end. In the late
11th century Greece was invaded by Normans from Sicily.
GREECE
• During the Crusades,
western princes occupied
all of Greece (except for
the rugged interior), and
divided it into states ruled
either by themselves or
under the control of the
commercial republics of
Venice and Genoa. This
domination continued
until the Ottoman Turkish
invasion and conquest in
1456. Greece remained
part of the Ottoman
Empire for nearly 400
years.
GREECE
• 1821: Revolt began under the
leadership of Alexander
Ypsilanti. The Concert of
Europe officially backed the
Ottoman Empire, but, in 1827
Britain, France, and Russia
entered the war; Greece
achieved independence in
1830 and was presented
(1833) by these powers with
a king from Bavaria, Otto.
GREECE
ITALY
• RISORGIMENTO:
''Resurgence'';
dream of a unified
nation that would
exceed the glory of
ancient Rome and
the Renaissance.
ITALY
• A. 1820: Revolts break
out in protest against
foreign control. These
were quickly put down
by Austrian forces.
• B. Young Italy:
organization formed by
Mazzini in 1826 for the
unification of Italy.
SPAIN
• In 1820 Spanish army officers
revolted against the King,
Ferdinand VII who was a
harsh ruler. They forced him
to restore an earlier, more
liberal constitution. The Great
Powers sent in a French army
in 1823. The revolution
leaders were punished and
Ferdinand was restored to
power.
VIVA LA FRANCE
• A. Louis XVIII (1815-1824): The
restoration Bourbon monarch
instituted the Constitutional Charter
of 1814 which protected the people
against a return to royal absolutism
and aristocratic privilege. During his
reign, the Royalist party, led by the
king's brother Charles, Count of
Artois, worked to restore absolutism.
When Louis XVIII died in 1824, his
brother succeeded as Charles X and
tried to re-establish the old order
and repudiated the Constitutional
Charter in 1830.
VIVA LA FRANCE
• B. Bye-Bye Charles X: Charles
abolished freedom of the press,
deprived the middle class of the
right to vote, reduced the power
of the legislature. An immediate
insurrection removed Charles
X, the last Bourbon king, from
the throne. The Revolution of
1830 in France is also called
the July Revolution.
VIVA LA FRANCE
• C. Hello, Louis Philippe
(1830-1848): This
successor and cousin to
Charles X had fought with
the revolutionaries in
1792. He was nicknamed
the ''Citizen-King'' because
of his manner and dress
and to distinguish him from
the absolutist Charles X.
VIVA LA FRANCE
• He accepted the Constitutional Charter,
recognizing the rights of a free press and
endorsing the extension of the suffrage to
the upper middle class. However, he
worked to protect the rich upper middle
class as represented by the Chamber of
Deputies by upholding a high tariff and not
allowing labor unions. The lower classes
had no part in the government.
BELGIUM
• Joined with Holland by the
Vienna Settlements, the
Belgians resisted the
centralizing efforts of the
Dutch government.
Disturbances broke out in
Belgium, August, 1830. The
leaders asked for Belgian
self- government. Faced
with Dutch troops, the
Belgians declared their
independence, formed a
national assembly wrote a
constitution.
BELGIUM
• 1831, the National Assembly
elected the son of Louis
Philippe to be king but dad
told him to say no. Then the
Assembly elected Leopold of
Saxe-Coburg, who was the
uncle of the young Victoria.
The English stepped in to
negotiate a settlement and in
the Treaty of 1831, Belgium
was set up as a permanently
neutral state.
NOT IN GREAT BRITAIN
• Political, economic and social problems
abounded in England in the first quarter of the
19th century. In the cities working and living
conditions were poor. Employment was
uncertain and wages were low for long hours of
work. Politically, only wealthy property owners
could vote: Catholics and non-Anglicans could
not hold public office, elections were expensive
and often corrupt. Rotten boroughs and pocket
boroughs made a mockery of representative
government.
TORY PARTY
• Controlled by the aristocracy, this
party feared liberalism and worked
to repress it.
• 1. Corn Laws (1815): passed by
Parliament to protect English
landowners by prohibiting the
importation of foreign grain unless
the domestic price rose above a
certain level. Protests by urban
workers were supported by radical
intellectuals. The 1819 Peterloo
Massacre (11 died) and similar
disturbances aroused Parliament to
repressive action
TORY PARTY
• 2. Six Acts (1819): Parliament's response
to the protest of the Corn Laws, these laws
eliminated all mass meetings.
• 3. Shaken up by the French Revolution of
1830 and the subsequent riots and
demonstrations within England: Tories
became more amenable to reform.
REFORM BILL OF 1832
• Introduced by the Whigs.
Supported by British liberals
who wanted to end the
inequalities of industrialization
by redistributing political power.
(rural areas had
representation, new industrial
cities did not). Agitation by the
growing middle class led to the
passage of this law which
expanded the suffrage to most
Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey
middle class males.
REFORM BILL OF 1832
• 1. The House of
Commons emerged
as the major
Legislative body.
• 2. The new industrial
areas of the country
gained
representation in the
House of Commons.
• 3. Many ''rotten
boroughs'' were
eliminated.
William Pitt the Younger
FACTORY ACT OF
1833
• Forbade the employment in
textile mills of children
under nine and restricted
the labor of those 7-13 to
48 hours per week.
THE CHARTIST MOVEMENT
• The People's Charter, drawn
up in 1838, demanded
universal male suffrage, a
secret ballot, annual
elections, voting districts with
equal population: abolition of
property qualification for
membership in Parliament
payment of stipends to
those elected to the House of
Commons.
THE CHARTIST MOVEMENT
• The Chartists presented their charter in
1839, 1842, and 1848. It was rejected
each time by Parliament. But the Anti-Corn
law League succeeded in getting the Corn
Laws repealed in 1846 and free trade
established.
William Lovett
Bi-partisan Reform
• Both the Tories and the Whigs supported
reform legislation by 1846.
• 1. Ten Hours Act (1847): limited the
workday for women and young people in
factories to ten hours.
Robert Peel
John Russell, 1st Earl Russell
IRELAND
• Reform efforts did not
extend to Ireland, where
potato crops failed in
1846, 1848, and 1851,
causing the Great
Famine. With the
support of the English
government, the
landowners evicted their
tenants who could not
pay their rents.
LESSONS FROM IRELAND
• Britain honed imperialism skills in Ireland
– Control land and resources – natives have no access
to resources, must pay for land’s bounty
– Divide and conquer – introduce an enemy to the
native population (often by redrawing traditional
boundaries). Conquering country becomes
“necessary” to maintain peace
– Deny educational opportunities
– Deny use of culture
• Natives may not speak own language, practice native religion
McMahon
MacMathghamha
PRUSSIA
• A. Post-Congress of Vienna:
liberal and nationalist
movements circumscribed by
the 1819 Carlsbad Decrees
(members of the German
Confederation were required to
root out subversive ideas in their
universities and newspapers; a
permanent committee of spies
was established to investigate
and punish any liberal or radical
organizations.)
PRUSSIA
• B. Middle Class Aspirations: wish to create
a unified liberal Germany.
PRUSSIA
• C. Working Class Aspirations: inspired by
events in France they demanded and
received a liberal constitution. However,
their demands for suffrage and socialist
reforms incited fear among the aristocracy
RUSSIA
• A. Alexander I (18011825): son of Paul I whose
mental instability
precipitated a palace coup
in 1801.
• 1. Reform: Alexander spent
the first years of his reign
trying to reform the
administration and
expanding educational
facilities. The government
was bureaucratized and
officials were better trained.
RUSSIA
• 2. Napoleonic Wars: The wars were costly for
Russia, but she did gain Finland and some lands
in the Caucasus. In addition, the scorched earth
policies employed necessitated economic
investment in rebuilding and encouraged
entrepreneurial initiatives by peasants and urban
commoners. There was a rapid expansion of
textile manufactures and the building trades,
generating capital and resources for later
Russian industrialization.
RUSSIA
RUSSIA
• 3. Unrest: Members of the educated
elite, seeking more liberalism for
Russian society clashed with
Alexander's government which
became more restrictive as
dissidents pressed for reform.
Secret societies were organized
under the leadership of progressive
officers, and, on the sudden death
of Alexander I late in 1825, they
tried to take over the government.
This Decembrist Revolt traumatized
Alexander's successor, his brother
Nicholas I, into a policy of reaction
and repression.
Grand Duke Constantine
Pavlovich of Russia
RUSSIA
• B. Nicholas I (1825-1855)
• 1. Strict censorship did not prevent this period from
becoming the Golden Age of Russian literature featuring
the works of Alexander Pushkin, Fyodor Dostoevsky, and
Leo Tolstoy. The literary flowering encouraged
widespread discussion of Russia's identity, future, and
relationship to western Europe.
RUSSIA
• 2. Technical and professional
training was supported by
Nicholas. By the end of his reign
Russia was home to a number of
well- trained professionals.
• 3. Codification of the Laws: 1833
• 4. Economic Achievements: The
building of railroads was initiated,
the currency was stabilized, and
protective tariffs were introduced.
As private enterprise grew the
backward nature of Russia's
agrarian economy based on serflabor became more evident.
RUSSIA
• 5. Foreign Involvement:
Russia helped to secure
Greek independence and
limited Turkish power in the
Black Sea. Nicholas crushed
the Polish insurrection of
1831-33 and helped Austria
subdue the Hungarians in
1849. At the end of his reign
Nicholas embroiled Russia in
the Crimean War (1853-56).
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revolutions of 1830 - Mentor Public Schools