HEBREW SCRIPTURES /
OLD TESTAMENT
TIMELINE
© 2007, Robert Schihl
Choice of Dates and Events
No set of scripture dates for the Hebrew Scriptures/Old Testament will satisfy all readers and
scholars. Choices based on scholarly evidence must be weighed. The dates of this timeline are
based on research as presented in the Jerome Biblical Commentary by Raymond Brown, Joseph
Fitzmyer and Roland Murphy, The Bible Timeline by Thomas Robinson, and The Handbook of
Biblical Chronology by Jack Finegan. Brown, Fitzmyer and Murphy also present their findings in
The New Jerome Bible Handbook.
The crucial date chosen from all this research in creating a baseline for the timeline is the time of
the Exodus. The evidence that Rameses II was the pharaoh of the Exodus is cogent enough to
warrant its use in building this timeline.
Graphic Representation of Hebrew Scripture/Old Testament Books
As with most research, some set of criteria must be chosen to present the dates of the Hebrew
Scriptures/Old Testament books. This timeline uses periods of time during which the particular
books were either collected, formulated and/or written. The oldest Christian canon of Old
Testament books, the Septuagint canon, as affirmed by the North African Church Councils of
Hippo (393 AD) and Carthage (397 AD) was also used. This list of 46 books remain intact until this
day and possess the most authority. The 46 books were the canon of the Christian Old Testament
for almost 1100 years until the 16th century.
The shaded rectangles for each book do not propose to be chronologically accurate in terms of
length of development and serve only to denote the period of time during which the book probably
developed. Accuracy of length of development can never be determined. The heavily shaded
portion of the rectangle approaches the date(s) research shows as most probable for the event. If
there are more specific dates calculated for the period of the development of a book, they are
given with the shaded area of the rectangles.
Authorship and Abbreviations Used
In creating the development of some Hebrew Scriptures/Old Testament books, especially those of
most antiquity, e.g., the Pentateuch, the neat and clean designation of authorship cannot be
expected.
Hence, the first five books of the Bible are expressed in their developmental form, making use of
the best scholarship available. In using the developmental aspect of the books, the identifiable
sections following from both literary style and content of the books is used. The letter J is used for
that author or editor who used the word “Yahweh” for the name of God; the letter E for the author
or editor who used the word “Elohim” for the name of God; P for the author or editor who was from
the priestly caste of Israel and emphasized the Temple and its liturgy; and D for that author or
editor who emphasized the Deuteronomic tradition of the Jews.
This developmental process in no way denies an original author of a book but concentrates on the
process through which the book went before it arrived in the form in which it is found today. This
developmental process expressed in this timeline does not question either the Divine inspiration
nor the authenticity of the books but manifests the role of human authors responding to the Divine
Author.
Bob Schihl, Ph.D.
January, 2007
Jacob
Terah and
Family migrate
from Ur to Haran
1925
+
Abraham
1835
Esau
1835
Isaac
1895
1995 BC
2000
Ur 1820
1975
1950
1925
1900
1875
1850
1825
18
Dinah
Reuben
Simeon
Levi
Judah
Issachar
Zebulun
Dan
Naphtali
Gad
Asher
Benjamin
1734
Manasseh
Ephraim
1727
Sold into Egypt
Joseph +
1744 Jacob and Family migrate to Egypt
Jacob
1705
+
1634
1688
Esau
?
1715
Famine
00
1775
1750
1725
1700
1675
1650
1625
Hyksos Period 13th - 17th Dynasties
16
Israel in Egypt
Hebrews forcibly
conscripted into
hard labor gangs
1450
+
The People of Israel Prosper in Egypt
00
1575
1550
13th Dynasty Begins
Ahmose
1567
1525
1500
Thutmose II
Thutmose I
1526
1512
1475
Thutmose III
1450
1425
Amenhotep II Thutmose IV
1411
1450
1425
14
EXODUS AND CONQUEST
PERIOD OF THE JUDGES
Othmiel
1381
1367
Mesopotamians
Ehud and Shamgar
1327
Moabites
1309
Joshua
1321
Moses
1209
Canaanites
Israelite males
are circumcised;
celebrate Passover
first time;
Jericho falls
1234
+ +
1211
1228
Ten Commandments
Divides Canaan
at Sinai
among Tribes
+
The Exodus
1275
1234
1229
1355
Aaron
1358
00
1375
1350
Tutankhamen
Akhenaton
Amenhotep III
Aya
1362 1352
1379
+
1348
Introduced
monotheistic
worship
Married his
sister Nefertiti
1235
1235
1325
1300
19th Dynasty
Seti I
Horemheb Rameses I
1320
1304
1318
1275
Ramses II
1250
1225
Merneptah
1237
1223
12
Seti II
1210 1200
(1300-1050)
(1200-1050)
Deborah and Barak
Gideon
1169 1162
Midianites
Tola and Jair
1122-19
Abilemech
Samuel
1086
Jepthah
1096
1078-75
Ammonites
and Philistines
Samson
1090
Becomes a Judge
1050
+
1006
Samson
1055
1055
David
1034
Saul is King
of Israel
1025
?
00
1175
1150
Ruth
1120 1115
1125
Saul
1054
?
1100
1075
1050
+
1004
1025
1-2 Samuel Assembled
Book of Judges
10
Northern Tribes
Choose Jeroboam
as King
926
Jeroboam
+
David Captures
Jerusalem
999
+
+
990
David Marries
Bathsheba
Nadab
906-5
Zimri
Elah
883-1
Ahaziah
Joram
Baasha
Ahab
Tibni
839
882 876 871
851-50
Omri
882
870
00
Jehu
811
Northern Kingdom of Israel
Southern Kingdom of Judah
965
Crowned
King
926
Rehoboam
+
966
Abijam
911-08
Asa
Solomon
989
Israel
Dominated
by Syria
810
+
Temple of Jerusalem is Built
961
954
975
950
960
926
?
925
930
Writing of Yahwist (J) Sources
900
Obediah
848-841
?
?
Johoram
Jehosaphat Athaliah
845-40 833
867 870
Ahaziah
Elisha
Elijah
?
Joel
850 ?
835
875
850
825
850
Formation of Elohist (E) Sources
Joash
799
?
80
Tiglath-pileser III Kingdom of Israel
Ceases to Exist
King of Assyria
722-700
Invades Israel
+
738
+
Menahem
Pekah Hosea
Jeroboam II Zechariah
Jehoahaz
722
739 730
751-49
797792
Joash
+
Shallum Pekahiah
795
Fall
781
738-36
of
Shalmaneser V begins 3-Year Siege of Samaria 725 + Samaria
Hosea
Isaiah
715
755
740
734
Jonah
Micah
753
782
700
735
Amos
? 760 753 ?
Ahaz
Hezekiah
Amaziah
?
732
716
+
794
764
Uzziah (Azariah
701
735
787 Jotham
Sennacherib 697
King
of Assyria
794
733
Invades Judah
)
0
775
750
Amos
725
700
Hosea
Isaiah 1-39
721
605
Nebuchadnezzar
Attempts to Conquer
Egypt
601
+
Nebuchadnezzar
?
680
686
Nahum
664-654
?
Zephaniah
?
632-628
Manasseh
675
650
?
?
Habakkuk
609-05 ?
?
Jeremiah
627
Jehoiahaz
Amon
Josiah
642-40
609
625
Jere
622
Making of the Deuteronomic Tradition
Nahum
Composition of
Habakkuk
609
Meeting of Yahwist and Elohist
Micah
60
Zephaniah
Joshua
1-2 Kings Shaped
PERSIAN PERIOD (538-332)
BABYLONIAN PERIOD
EARLY POSTEXILIC PERIOD (539-332)
Daniel
535
+ Kingdom of Judah Ceases to Exist
Baruch
538
597
Edict of
Cyrus
539
Ezekiel
+
593
571
Cambyses
Cyrus
522
550
530
587
Fall of
Jerusalem;
Temple Destroyed
586
+
Jeremiah
580
Jehoiachim
Jehoiakim
597 587
Zedekiah Babylonian
0
Darius I
Artaxerxes I
Zechariah
520
Begins to Prophesy
Babylon Defeated
Haggai
+
?
520
Begins to Prophesy
Captivity
550
Lamentations
?
480
Ezra
?
?
Malachi
?
432-424
?
?
444
Reads
Temple Scroll
+ 520 Foundation of the new Temple laid
+ 516 Temple is completed
525
500
475
450
1-2 Chronicles
450
2 Isaiah 40-56
521
40
Ezra
Esther
Making of the Priestly (P) Source
Proverbs
425
428
474
550
550
Joshua Revised
424
Nehemiah
?
445
Rebuild Jerusalem’s Walls
Restoration period
miah 1-2 Kings Final Version
3 Isaiah 56-66
Psalms Final Form
560
520
500
Deuteronomic History
Jonah
Zechariah 1-8
1-2 Samuel Final
Darius II
465
539
575
Ezekiel
Xerxes I
486
Nehemiah
Job
Malachi
Merging of JE + P
486
Haggai
JEP + D
THE GREEK ERA
PERSIAN PERIOD
Aramaic Increasingly Replaces Hebrew
375
+
333
Samaritans Build Temple to God
on Mount Gerizim
Persian Rule
of Egypt
Ended
405
+
405
The Translation
of the Septuagint
Began
250
+
Alexander
Conquers
Hellenistic Rulers / Egypt
Ptolemy IV Philopetor
Palestine
Ptolemy
III
Euergetes
Ptolemy
I
Soter
Ptolemy
II
Philadelphus
332
221
305
282
246
204
+
Alexander the Great
+ 323
356
Seleucid Rulers / Syria
Antiochus II Theos
Seleucus III
331
Seleucus II Callinicus Aniochus III
Seleucus I Nicator Antiochus I Soter
Conquers Egypt; 312
261
246
225-23
281
Founds Alexandria
0
375
Joel
Obediah
Merging
350
325
Zechariah 9-14
300
275
250
225
Psalter as Known Today
Ecclesiates
20
THE ROMAN ERA
THE HASMONEAN ERA
Maccabean Revolt
Mary and Joseph
Betrothed
8
+
Temple Temple
Desecrated Rededicated
167 164
++
Alexandra Salome Hyrcanus II
Judas Maccabeus Simon Maccabeus
Aristobulus
76
67
40
142 135
104-3
165 160
Antigonus
John Hyrcanus Alexander Jannaeus Aristobulus II
Mattathias Jonathan Maccabeus
40-37
168-66 160
142 135
104
67-63
76
Cleopatra II Ptolemy XI
101
Ptolemy
VIII
80
Cleopatra I
Ptolemy
IX
Ptolemy X
Ptolemy
VII
Ptolemy V Epiphanes Ptolemy VI
116
107
88
204
180 176 Neos Philometor
80 Ptolemy XII
145
Antiochus IV
Epiphanes
Antiochus VI
Seleucus IV Antiochus V Alexander Antiochus VII
187
175
164-2
150145-2 138 129
Demetrius II Trypho
0
200
175
150
125
100
JESUS
CHRIST
6 BC
Pompey
Conquers
Jerusalem for Rome
64
Herod the Great
+
40
75
120
180
Book of Wisdom
Judith
Tobit
180
100
Sirach
1 Maccabees
165
Final Form for Book of Daniel
164
Baruch
80
2 Maccabees
Temple
and
Mount
Built
20-18
50
4
25
1
+
5
Paul is
Born
• Questions or comments?
– Email
• Dr. Robert Schihl
([email protected])
© 2007, Robert Schihl
Download

Timeline of the Hebrew Scriptures - Old Testament