American Pageant
Kennedy, Cohen, & Bailey
Chapter Twenty-four
Industry Comes of Age
1866-1900
Carnegie Steel Mill, Youngstown, Ohio, 1910
1
Growth of Railroads
1860 – 35,000 Miles of Track
1900 – 192,000 Miles of Track
Central Pacific-Union Pacific Railway, 1869
2
Growth of Railroads
Union Pacific – Central Pacific
Union Pacific – Irish Workers
Central Pacific – Chinese Workers
3
Growth of Railroads
Union Pacific – Central Pacific
Leland Stanford
Colis Huntington
Promontory, Utah - 1869
4
Growth of Railroads
Northern Pacific – 1883
Atchinson, Topeka, & Santa Fe – 1884
Southern Pacific – 1884
Great Northern - 1893
5
Growth of Railroads
Consolidation
Cornelius Vanderbilt
New York Central RR
Baltimore & Ohio RR
Pennsylvania Railroad
Erie Railroad
All Rails Connected to Chicago
6
Growth of Railroads
Technology Advancements
Cornelius Vanderbilt
Standard Gauge
Steel Rails
Double Track
Westinghouse Air Brake
Pullman Palace Car
7
Growth of Railroads
Corruption in Railroads
Stock Watering
Milking the Farmer
Bribing Government Officials
Pools
Rebates
8
Farmers Organize
Against the Railroads
a
Oliver H. Kelley
National Grange of the
Patrons of Husbandry
Depression of 1873
Cooperative Stores
Grain Elevators
Crop Warehouses
9
Farmers Organize
Against the Railroads
Farmers
Alliance
a
Charles Macune
Northern Alliance
Southern Alliance
Colored Alliance
People’s Party - Populists
10
Railroad Regulation
Begins
Granger Laws
a
Wabash Case (1886)
Interstate Commerce
Act of 1887
Interstate Commerce
Commission
11
The “Robber Barons”
“Captains
of Industry”
Andrew Carnegie
Bessemer Process
William Kelley
Henry Bessemer
Carnegie Steel Co.
“Gospel of Wealth”
$324 Million to Charity
Carnegie
12
The “Robber Barons”
“Captains
of Industry”
J. Pierpont Morgan
Railroad
Reorganization
Investment Banker
U.S. Steel Corp 1901
Morgan
13
The “Robber Barons”
“Captains
of Industry”
John D. Rockefeller
1859 – Edwin L. Drake
Kerosene
Lamp Fuel
1863 – Standard Oil
Consolidation/Trusts
Rockefeller
14
The “Robber Barons”
“Captains
of Industry”
John D. Rockefeller
Standard Oil Trust
Holding Company
1889
Rockefeller
15
The “Robber Barons”
“Captains
of Industry”
“Gospel of Wealth”
Andrew Carnegie
Charles Darwin
Herbert Spencer
Spencer
“Law of the Jungle” Darwin
Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890
16
Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890
Political
Cartoon
17
Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890
Political
Cartoon
Teddy’s
Way of
Handing
Trusts
18
Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890
Political Cartoon
The Trust Giant’s Point of View
“What
a Funny Little Government!”
19
Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890
Political Cartoon
One Sees His Finish Unless Good Government Retakes the Ship
20
Rise of the Labor Movement
Child Labor
Manual Labor
Female Labor
21
Rise of the Labor Movement
Pre-Industrial Conditions
Contract Labor Law
Corporations Fight Unions
Scabs – Court Injunctions
Lockouts – Black Lists
Yellow Dog Contracts
Company Towns
22
Rise of the Labor Movement
National Labor Union – 1866
Panic of 1873
Knights of Labor – 1869
(Noble & Holy Order of Knights of Labor)
Terence V, Powderly Haymarket
Riots - 1886
23
Rise of the Labor Movement
American
Federation of Labor
Samuel Gompers – 1880s
Panic of 1893
Powderly
Gompers
24
Sources:
Factory 3 - http://memory.loc.gov/cgibin/query/I?pan:64:./temp/~ammem_Nhik::displayType=1:m856sd=pan:m856sf=6a15367:@@@mdb=manz,eaa,aaeo,aaodyssey,hh
,gottscho,bbpix,bbcards,magbell,berl,lbcoll,cdn,cic,cwnyhs,cwar,consrvbib,coolbib,coplandbib,curt,dag,fsaall,aep,fine,fmuever,dcm
,cmns,cowellbib,toddbib,lomaxbib,ngp,gottlieb,alad,mcc,mymhiwebib,aipn,afcwip,fawbib,omhbib,pan,vv,wpapos,psbib,pin,presp,ql
t,ncr,mesnbib,denn,runyon,wtc,detr,upboverbib,varstg,horyd,hawp,suffrg,awh,awhbib,wright
Promontory Utah 1869 3 - http://americanhistory.si.edu/onthemove/exhibition/exhibition_1_3.html
Chinese worker - http://photoswest.org/cgi-bin/imager?10021656+X-21656
Chinese Workers 1 - http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/flipomatic/cic/[email protected]?img=brk00003107_16a
Chinese Railroad Workers 2 - http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/flipomatic/cic/[email protected]?img=brk00003107_16a
Cornelius Vanderbilt 1 - http://voteview.uh.edu/images/vanderb2.gif
Locomotive 6 - http://memory.loc.gov/cgibin/displayPhoto.pl?path=/award/nbhips/lca/126&topImages=12652r.jpg&topLinks=12652v.jpg&displayProfile=0&title=Burlingto
n%20engine%20number%20120,%20the%20first%20train%20into%20Broken%20Bow,%20Nebraska,&m856s=$dnbhips$f12652
&dir=ammem&itemLink=D?psbib:137:./temp/~ammem_xvxd::@@@mdb=manz,eaa,aaeo,aaodyssey,hh,gottscho,bbpix,bbcards,m
agbell,berl,lbcoll,cdn,cic,cwnyhs,cwar,consrvbib,coolbib,coplandbib,curt,dag,fsaall,aep,fine,fmuever,dcm,cmns,cowellbib,toddbib,l
omaxbib,ngp,gottlieb,alad,mcc,mymhiwebib,aipn,afcwip,fawbib,omhbib,pan,vv,wpapos,psbib,pin,presp,qlt,ncr,mesnbib,denn,runyo
n,wtc,detr,upboverbib,varstg,horyd,hawp,suffrg,awh,awhbib,wright
Locomotive 3 - http://memory.loc.gov/cgibin/displayPhoto.pl?path=/award/nbhips/lca/126&topImages=12651r.jpg&topLinks=12651v.jpg&displayProfile=0&title=First%20t
rain%20into%20Sargent,%20Custer%20County,%20Nebraska.&m856s=$dnbhips$f12651&dir=ammem&itemLink=D?psbib:106:./
temp/~ammem_xvxd::@@@mdb=manz,eaa,aaeo,aaodyssey,hh,gottscho,bbpix,bbcards,magbell,berl,lbcoll,cdn,cic,cwnyhs,cwar,co
nsrvbib,coolbib,coplandbib,curt,dag,fsaall,aep,fine,fmuever,dcm,cmns,cowellbib,toddbib,lomaxbib,ngp,gottlieb,alad,mcc,mymhiwe
bib,aipn,afcwip,fawbib,omhbib,pan,vv,wpapos,psbib,pin,presp,qlt,ncr,mesnbib,denn,runyon,wtc,detr,upboverbib,varstg,horyd,hawp,
suffrg,awh,awhbib,wright
Oliver H. Kelley 1 - http://www.mnhs.org/places/sites/ohkf/ohkf-doc.html
Andrew Carnegie 1 - http://www.americaslibrary.gov/aa/carnegie/aa_carnegie_subj_e.html
25
Sources:
Locomotive 1 - http://memory.loc.gov/cgibin/query/I?cdn:38:./temp/~ammem_xvxd::displayType=1:m856sd=ichicdn:m856sf=n084950:@@@mdb=manz,eaa,aaeo,aaodysse
y,hh,gottscho,bbpix,bbcards,magbell,berl,lbcoll,cdn,cic,cwnyhs,cwar,consrvbib,coolbib,coplandbib,curt,dag,fsaall,aep,fine,fmuever,
dcm,cmns,cowellbib,toddbib,lomaxbib,ngp,gottlieb,alad,mcc,mymhiwebib,aipn,afcwip,fawbib,omhbib,pan,vv,wpapos,psbib,pin,pre
sp,qlt,ncr,mesnbib,denn,runyon,wtc,detr,upboverbib,varstg,horyd,hawp,suffrg,awh,awhbib,wright
Oil Field 1 - http://photoswest.org/cgi-bin/imager?10022278+X-22278
Charles Darwin 1 - http://www2.lucidcafe.com/lucidcafe/library/96feb/darwin.html
Herbert Spencer 1 - http://www.econlib.org/library/LFBooks/Spencer/Spencer.jpg
Monopoly pirates - http://www.history.ohio-state.edu/projects/uscartoons/gapecartoons/TrustsAsPirates.htm
Carnegie Trusts - http://www.authentichistory.com/images/postcivilwar/cartoons/189x_andrew_carnegie_01.html
Rockefeller Trust - http://www.history.ohio-state.edu/projects/uscartoons/verdict/ht/22Jan1900.htm
Roosevelt and the Trusts - http://search.eb.com/elections/pri/Q00121.html
PowerHouse Mechanic - http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/picturing_the_century/portfolios/port_hine.html#
Children Stringing Beans - http://www.archives.gov/digital_classroom/lessons/hine_photographs/images/stringing_beans.gif
Textile Worker 1 - http://memory.loc.gov/cgibin/query/I?fsaall:17:./temp/~ammem_zIpI::displayType=1:m856sd=fsa:m856sf=8b20927:@@@mdb=manz,eaa,aaeo,aaodyssey,hh
,gottscho,bbpix,bbcards,magbell,berl,lbcoll,cdn,cic,cwnyhs,cwar,consrvbib,coolbib,coplandbib,curt,dag,fsaall,aep,fine,fmuever,dcm
,cmns,cowellbib,toddbib,lomaxbib,ngp,gottlieb,alad,mcc,mymhiwebib,aipn,afcwip,fawbib,omhbib,pan,vv,wpapos,psbib,pin,presp,ql
t,ncr,mesnbib,denn,runyon,wtc,detr,upboverbib,varstg,horyd,hawp,suffrg,awh,awhbib,wright
26