The Era of Muhammad Ali
By Nehal, Sarah, Hasnae, and
Ashley
Background
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•
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Born in 1769 in an Ottoman port called Kavala
His father and grandfather were military leaders
Moved to power through military achievement
Known as the “Father of Modern Egypt”
Family
• He married the governor's daughter, Khadra
• Then he married Amina who gave birth to Ibrahim,
Tussun, and Ismail
• He fathered seventeen sons and thirteen daughters
• Muhammad
Ali’s Family
Tree
Political Personality
• Fun and lively person
• Piercing eyes
• Smart and fair with experience
Reforming Egypt
• Main goal: a European-style Egypt
• Nationalized all land so he owned all the
production of land
• Raised taxes on the people who previously owned
all the land
• Monopoly on trade in Egypt
• Established a modern navy
Agricultural Reforms
• 1813: sharing of common land (changed the state of
the fellaheen in Egypt)
• Took hold of the lands from the Mamelukes
• Improved the irrigations systems
• Cultivation of cotton in Delta starting 1822
Educational Reforms
• Educational system was founded in 1811
• Took effort to educate all people in his country,
especially girls
• Established many schools particularly in rural areas
• Offered scholarships for students to go study
outside of Egypt
Military Reforms
• Conscripted peasants to work in the army
• Invited Turks into the country to lead his army
• Created Western-styled schools to train doctors,
engineers, and veterinarians to supply services for
his army
• Sent soldiers to European countries for training in
modern techniques
Politics
• Muhammad Ali was the viceroy/ pasha of Egypt
from 1805-1848
• He wanted to eliminate the mameluks
• He wanted to create an independent Egypt
politically and economically
Political Reforms
• Muhammad Ali desired a professional bureaucracy
• 1811, exterminated the leader of the mameluks
• He reorganized the administrative structure of the
government
• Worked to modernize Egypt
Social Structure
• Religious leaders acted as
intermediaries/ buffers
between the public and
administration
• Intermediaries would take
money or authority for
services
• In times of crisis,
intermediaries would usurp
the central gov’t
Social Structure
• Guilds had tax-collecting
elders
• Village shaikh was power
booker, money lender, and
landlord
Social Reforms
• Confiscated feudal farms of mameluks
• 1808, he started confiscating private lands of
individuals and gave them pensions
• Reform programs were aimed at creating a modern
Egyptian society
Mameluks’ Tombs
Economy
• Surplus from agriculture was distributed to: fallah,
village sheikh, mameluks, and central treasury.
• System benefited large number of people, but was
wasteful and the treasury used the money
unproductively
Mameluks
Fallah
Agricultural
Surplus
Village
Sheikh
Central
treasury
Economic Reforms
• By reorganizing the administrative structure of the
government, Muhammad Ali guaranteed strict
control of the economy
• Created state monopolies over chief products
• Encouraged overland transit of goods from Europe
to India via Egypt
Industrial Reforms
• He tried constructing a modern industrial system to
process raw materials.
• Created factories
• Created a cotton industry
Industrial Reforms
• Started building a new canal, called Mahmudiya, in
1819
• This made travel safer and trading more efficient
Failures of Reforms
• Muhammad Ali was unable to sever ties with
Ottoman Sultanate
• Industrial experiments failed, due to Egypt’s lack of
power sources and a skilled working class
• Agricultural sector declined due to excessive
taxation and monopoly on trade
• Financial requirements increased because of military
campaigns
The Successors’ Reforms
• Abbas I, Ibrahim’s
nephew, takes the
throne
• Reforms:
– Put an end to
commercial
monopolies
– Railway from
Alexandria to Cairo
begun
Muhammad Ali’s Successors
• Sa’id, son of Mohammad Ali, takes over Egypt
• Reforms and death:
Tried to put an
end to slave
raiding (failed)
1858, land law
securing fellahin an
acknowledgement of
freehold as against
the crown
1854,
created Bank
of Egypt
January
1863, Sa’id
Pasha died
Muhammad Ali’s Successors
• Reforms of Ismail The Magnificent:
• Re-established/ improved Muhammad Ali’s administrative system
• Remodeled customs system
• Reorganized military schools
1865
1869
• Established Egyptian post office
• Opened Suez Canal
Wars and Foreign Affairs
Egyptian Revolution (1803-1805)
• Egyptian Revolution (1803-1805) - Political violence
had hit Egypt, leading to the rise of Muhammed Ali
as Pasha of Egypt.
Wahabi War (1811-1818)
• Muhammed Ali lead a war
against the Wahabi Muslim
sect in Arabia.
• The Wahabis were trying to
capture Muslim Holy place
like Mecca and Medina.
• The Egyptians regained
their territory and settled in
the name of Ottoman
Empire.
Egyptian Conquest of the Sudan
(1820-1839)
• Led my Muhammed’s
son, Hussein,
conquered Sudan.
• This gave control over
the Red Sea, as well as
the Nile.
• This was their most
successful attempt on
expanding
Greek War of Independence (18211832)
• Egypt aided the
Ottoman Turks when
fighting the Greeks.
• Muhammed’s son,
Ibrahim, lead the
Egyptian troops in
Greece.
• But the British, French
and Russians came in to
help out Greece.
Greek War of Independence (18211832)
• The war ended, at the Battle of Navarino, in the
defeat of both the Ottoman Turks and Egyptians.
• This directly caused in their new war between the
Ottomans and Egyptians.
First Turko-Egyptian War (1832-1833)
• Muhammed was
hoping to receive Syria
as a token of thanks
from the Ottomans
• After not receiving an
reward for helping out
the Turks during the
war, resulted in the
First Turko – Egyptian
War.
First Turko-Egyptian War (1832-1833)
• Ali invaded several
major cities in the
region, as well at
Constantinople.
(Ottoman Capital)
• Russia came
intervened the war
and in order to
restore peace, Egypt
was awarded with
Syria
Second Turko-Egyptian War (18391841)
• Egypt declared itself as
a independent nation
from Ottoman rule
• They even beat the
forces that were sent by
the Ottoman rulers to
stop the uproar.
• Britain eventually came
and brought Egypt back
to Ottoman rule.
International Relations
• Relations between Sudan
and Egypt were never
great, especially during
Ali’s conquest of Sudan.
• His view on Sudan was a
place with a great deal of
resources that they could
take advantage of.
• Such as gold, territory and
slaves
International Relations
• During the Greek
Independence War, Egypt
stepped in to help out the
Ottomans.
• Allies of Greece, Britain,
France and Russia
intervened to come to
defeat the Turko/Egyptian
fleet.
• This cost the Pasha his
whole navy as well as no
new addition to territory
International Relations
• Being under the
Ottoman rule always
something that kept the
Pasha on his toes
• Clearly, Egypt wanted
to be their own
independent nation
resulting in two Turko
– Egyptian wars
• Britain stepped in to
restore everything to
Ottoman Rule.
Main Achievements in his Era
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Weakening the tie bonding Egypt to Turkey
Starting the cotton industry
Recognizing the advantages of European Science
the conquest of Sudan.
Successors
Ibrahim
September 1848 – 10 November
1848
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Born 1789, Macedonia (Greece)
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Died November 10, 1848, Cairo
Eldest son of Muhammed Ali.
However is considered adopted.
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Ibrahim
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1805 - Governor of Cairo
1816-18 - Commanded an
army against the wahhabite
rebels
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1821-22 - His father sent him
to Sudan for a mission
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1831-32 – Led an Egyptian
army through Palestine, and
defeated an Ottoman army.
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Ibrahim
December 21, 1832 - Gained a final victory
at Konya
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May 4, 1833 – He became governor-general
Syria and Andana
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June 24, 1839 – Last and greatest victory
Abbas I
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10 November 1848 – 13 July 1854
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Born 1813, Jeddah, Hejaz
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Died July 13, 1884, Egypt
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Ibrahim’s nephew
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Selfish, secretive, cruel
Abbas I
Served in administrative and military
positions, and military commander in Syria
●Reduced the arm forces, opposed the
construction of the Suez canal.
●Roads were improved, and let the british
construct the Alexandria-Cairo railway.
●1853 – he sent a force to help the ottomans in
the Crimean War
●Helped the poor class
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Sa’id I
13 July 1854 – 18 January 1863
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Born 1822, Cairo
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Died January 18, 1863,
Alexandria
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Muhammed Ali’s fourth son
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Sa’id I
1854 – Succeeded viceroy of Egypt,
against Abbas
1855 – passed a law; male
descendents of a peasant to inherit
his land
1856 – one of his greatest acts;
construction of the Suez canal by a
French company
1858 – passed another law; limiting
land inheritance to Muslims
1861 – established a commission to
work out a municipal code for Egypt
cities
Unsuccessfully attempted to end
slave trade
Ismail I
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18 January 1863 – June 1879
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Born December 31, 1830, Cairo
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Died March 2, 1895, Istanbul
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Ibrahim’s son
Ismail I
Studied in Paris
●Undertook diplomatic missions in Europe
●1867 – obtained the title of Khedive, from the
Ottoman Sultan
●Negotiated the completion of the Suez Canal
●Hope to bring Sudan under Egyptian control
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The Era of Muhammad Ali