THE CONSERVATIVE
ORDER
Europe regains control after
Napoleonic Wars
1815-1830
CONGRESS OF VIENNA 1815
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Europe’s major powers
were determined to
restore order after the dual
forces of liberalism and
nationalism arose in the
late 18th century
The 4 major enemies of
France meet to discuss
peace settlement and new
era of Conservatism
THE PEACE SETTLEMENT
► Leaders
of Britain,
Austria, Prussia, and
Russia met
► They restored the
Bourbon Dynasty to
France
► Leaders guided by
principles of
Legitimacy and
Balance of Power
LOUIS XVIII
KEY PLAYERS
► Castlereagh
(Britain)
► Talleyrand (France)
► Metternich (Austria)
was the leader who
hated liberalism and
nationalism
► He sought a return to
the Old Order
Klemens von Metternich
CONSERVATIVE IDEOLOGY
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Reaction against French
Revolution
Drew ideas from Edmund
Burke’s book
Citizens have duty to state- a
partnership
No violent overthrows
No sudden change
Obedience to political authority
(Monarchy)
Organized religion crucial
No Civil liberties
Community over individuals
METTERNICH LED 4 SESSIONS OF
“CONGRESS”
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Congress of Vienna (1815) members agreed to meet
periodically to maintain proper order
1) Aix-la-Chapelle 1818 Adds France to alliance
2) Troppau 1820 Established Principle of Intervention
3) Laibach 1821 Restored Bourbons to Italy
4) Verona 1822 France ok’ed to crush Spanish rebels
LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE
Principle of Intervention
could not extend to Latin
America as many countries
gain independence
► Venezuela
► Columbia
► Chile
► Lima
► Brazil
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GREEK INDEPENDENCE
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In 1821, Greeks rebel against their long-time landlords- the Ottoman
Turks
Greek Independence Movement transformed into noble cause.
In 1827, British and France combine to bring down Ottoman fleet
In 1830, Greeks win hard fought Independence
A victory for liberals and nationalists
19th CENTURY “ISMS”
LIBERALISM
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Liberalism’s origins could be
found in the Enlightenment and
American and French
Revolutions
Tenets included;
Civil Liberties
Freedom
Religious tolerance
Anti-censorship
Laissez-Faire Economics
Extended suffrage
Executive branch checked by
constitution
KEY PLAYER- THOMAS MALTHUS
Malthus (Essay on the Principle of
Population) believed population would surpass
food supply. He theorized that while food
increased arithmetically, population increased
geometrically. Misery and poverty was the result.
► Thomas
KEY PLAYER – DAVID RICARDO
► David
Ricardo argued
in his book, Principles
of Political Economy,
that an increase in
population would
mean an abundance of
workers which would
suppress wages =“Iron
law of wages”
JOHN STUART MILL
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English philosopher
Most famous book, On
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Considered definitive
statement on individual
liberty
Wrote of women’s rights in
his classic, On the
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Liberty (1859)
Subjection of Women
(1867)
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Important book for 19th
century women’s
movement
NATIONALISM
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Origins in French
Revolution and their ability
to marshal support for the
war effort
Refers to an awareness of
being part of a community
Belonging to a nation
Focus on an individual’s
loyalty
Political borders to be
determined by cultural
similarities
EARLY SOCIALISM
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Pitiful conditions of early Industrial Revolution gave rise to ideology
known as Socialism
Later associated with Marxism, early Socialists believed economic and
social equality and human cooperation was better than competition
Sometimes called, Utopian Socialists, members were against private
property
KEY PLAYERS
Charles Fourier:
Proposed small
communities phalansteries –
with 1620 folks
Louis Blanc’s
Organization
of Work
called for
gov’t asst.
Robert Owen
tried to establish
communes in
Scotland &
Indiana in 1820s
Flora Tristan
was a utopian
socialist &
feminist-
Worker’s
union
REVOLUTION & REFORM
1830-1850
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Louis Philippe
1830-1848
In 1830, forces of
liberalism, nationalism and
revolution began to break
through the conservative
stranglehold on Europe
It began in 1830 in France
when King Charles X
issued The July
Ordinances- Immediately
caused The July
Revolution which
deposed the King in favor
of his cousin Louis-Philippe
LOUIS PHILIPPE: THE BOURGEOIS
MONARCH
► Constitutional
changes
that favored the
bourgeois were
instituted
► Opposition soon
emerged as Louis
Philippe’s government
failed to placate the
working class
REVOLUTIONARY OUTBURSTS IN
BELGIUM, POLAND, AND ITALY
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While liberalism played a
key role in the French Rev.
of 1830, nationalism
played a key role in
revolutions elsewhere
Belgium rose up against
the Dutch in 1830
successfully
Not so successful for the
Italians (Austrian control)
& Poles (Russian control)
REFORM IN GREAT BRITAIN
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The ruling elite in Britain (Whigs) realized reform was
needed to avoid revolution. They passed a election reform
bill in 1832 given voice to previously ignored districts and
eligible voters doubled in number. Also Poor Laws enacted
in 1834 and Corn Laws repealed in 1846.
REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
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By 1848, forces of
liberalism & nationalism
arose
Starts again in France
Under the leadership of
Adolphe Thiers, Radical
Republicans seize the
government and set up
Provisional Gov’t
Before too long, only
Russia & Great Britain
remained untouched by
revolution
Adolphe Thiers
GROWING SPLIT IN FRANCE
Moderate Republicans split
with Radical Republics
► Unemployment surged and
government forced to
close national workshops
(Louis Blanc)
► Workers revolted and gov’t
crushed uprising
► New Constitution in 1848
established the Second
Republic with Napoleon’s
nephew (Charles Louis
Napoleon Bonaparte) as
ruler
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Charles Louis
Napoleon
Bonaparte
REVOLUTIONS IN CENTRAL
EUROPE: GERMANY
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News of the revolution in
France spread quickly
Government in Germany
moved to enact changes to
prevent revolution
Including; anti-censorship,
male suffrage, a new
constitution
Frankfort Assembly led the
way in reform
However, Frankfort
Assembly soon disbanded
and the reform impulse
with it
REVOLUTION OF 1848: AUSTRIA
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News of Paris encourage Austria
to erupt in flames in 1848
Hungarian liberals under Louis
Kossuth wanted own legislature
Metternich flees as Buda,
Prague, and Vienna revolt
Emperor Ferdinand I makes
concessions but waits for his
chance to regain control – he
abdicates in favor of Francis
Joseph I
Hungarian revolt only crushed
after Russian’s helped in 1849
The Revolutions in Austria had
failed
Francis Joseph
REVOLUTIONS IN ITALIAN STATES
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Guiseppe
Mazzini
Leader of Italy
risorgimento (resurgence)
was Giuseppe Mazzini, a
devoted nationalist
He founded Young Italy
and Italian states rose up
in 1848 against their
Austrian landlords
Rebellions across Italy
soon crushed by Austrians
& French
FAILURES OF 1848
Throughout Europe in
1848, popular revolts
made short-term gains
► Conservative regimes
quickly regained control
► Why?
► Lack of unity among
revolutionaries
► Liberals retrenched due to
fear of social chaos
► Minorities in Austria fought
each other – lacked unity
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