Ancient Greece
Unit 3: Democracy and
Greece’s Golden Age
World History Core
Cultural Interaction
Democratic principles and classical culture
flourished during Greece’s golden age.
Why is it important today?!?!?
At its height, Greece set lasting standards in
art, politics, literature, and philosophy that are
still influential today.
Terms:
Be able to define these by the end of this PowerPoint 
 Direct Democracy
 Classical Art
 Tragedy
 Comedy
 Peloponnesian War
 Philosopher
 Socrates
 Plato
 Aristotle
Setting the Stage…….
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For 50 years (477-431 BC) Athens grew
intellectually and artistically = Golden Age of Athens
Achievements in:
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Drama
Sculpture
Poetry
Philosophy
Architecture
Science
Pericles’ Plan for Athens
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leader of Athens through Golden Age
461-429 BC, aka Age of Pericles
3 GOALS
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(1) strengthen democracy
(2) hold and strengthen empire
(3) glorify Athens
Athenian
Democracy
Citizens: male, 18 years
old, born of citizen
parents
Laws voted on and
proposed directly by
assembly of all citizens
Leader chosen by lot
Executive branch
composed of a council
of 500 men
Juries varied in size
No attorneys; no
appeals, one-day trials
Both
Political power
exercised by citizens
Three branches of
government
Legislative branch
passes laws
Executive branch
carries out laws
Judicial branch
conducts trial with
paid jurors
US Democracy
Citizens: Born in US or
completed citizenship
process
Representatives elected
to propose and vote on
laws
Elected President
Executive branch made
up of elected and
appointed officials
Juries composed of 12
jurors
Defendants and
plaintiffs have
attorneys; on appeals
process
GOAL 1: Strengthen Democracy
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Increased # of paid public officials
Having paid officials meant even poor could
serve if elected or chosen by lot
Direct Democracy: form of government in
which citizens rule directly and not through
representatives
Important Question??????

How accurate do you think Pericles’
statement that Athenian democracy was in
the hands of the “whole people”?
Goal 2: Hold and Strengthen Empire
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Delian League formed after Persian War. Athens
took over leadership = dominated all city-states in it
Used $$$ from League to build up Athenian Navy
Athens needed trade (waterways) to obtain grain
and raw materials to support the city-state
Athens military strength=Pericles treated members
of league as part of an empire
Peloponnesus city-states resisted (Ex. Sparta)
Goal 3: Glorify Athens
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Used $$$ from League to make Athens
beautiful
Convinced Assembly to buy gold, ivory, and
marble with funds
More $$$ was also needed to contract artist,
architects, and workers
Glorious Art and Architecture
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Goal: Greatest Greek artists/architects to
glorify Athens
PARTHENON = center of his plans
Architecture and Sculpture:
Parthenon
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Parthenon (temple)
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23,000 sq foot building in tradition Greek design
Built to honor Athena (Goddess of wisdom and
protector of Athens)
Statue of Athena inside 30 ft tall
Architecture and Sculpture:
Sculptors
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Graceful, strong, and perfect (ideal beauty)
Faces only show serenity (no other emotion)
Architecture and Sculptures:
Classical Art
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Classical Art: ancient Greece ideal, in which
harmony, order, and proportion were
emphasized
Drama and History
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Greeks invented drama as an art form and
built the 1st theaters
Civic Pride and Honor to Gods
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Wealthy put on productions
Plays showed leadership, justice, and duties
owed to Gods
Tragedy
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Serious drama about love, hate, war, and/or
betrayal
Tragic hero: important figure and gifted with
extraordinary ability
Tragic flaw: hero’s downfall
Sophocles: wrote 100 plays, Oedipus the
King
Euripides: Medea
Comedy
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Scenes with slapstick comedy and crude
humor
Made fun of politics and respected people
Satire:
Aristophanes: Lysistrata in which women of
Athens try to force their husbands to end the
Peloponnesian War
History
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Recap: Dorian Age, no written records…had
works of Homer, but not considered accurate
Herodotus: a Greek, living in Athens,
pioneered accurate reporting
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Book on Persian War = 1st history book
Thucydides: believed certain events and
political situations recur over time = important
to write events down
Important Question?????
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Do you think that Thucydides was right in his
assertion that history sometimes repeats
itself??? YES OR NO…..
Athenians and Spartans Go to
WAR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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Athens = power, prestige, and power = other
city-states hostility
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SPARTA!!!
Sparta declared war in 431 BC
Important Question?????
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What might have been Pericles’ goals in the
Peloponnesian War?
Peloponnesian War
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Athens = Navy
Sparta = Army
Pericles’ Strategy: avoid land battles and wait for a sea
opportunity
Sparta marched into Athens territory
Pericles had no other choice but to bring people into city walls
City safe from hunger as long as ships could come into ports
2nd year of war PLAGUE outbreak in Athens, killing 1/3rd of
population and PERICLES!!!
Athens still continued to fight for several years
421 BC signed a truce (worn out by war)
Important Question?????
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Why might the plague that struck Athens in
the second year of the war have been so
devastating???
Sparta Gains VICTORY!
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Peace did not last, 415 BC Athens sent fleet
to Syracuse (Sicily) to destroy them, one of
the greatest allies of Sparta
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Ended in crushing defeat in 413 BC
Athens, weak and few, continued to fight for
nine more years
404 BC Athenians surrendered
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Lost empire, power, and wealth
Philosophers Search for
TRUTH!
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After war = time of doubt and uncertainty =
rise of great thinkers
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Determined to seek truth
Philosophers = “lovers of wisdom”
Based philosophy on 2 assumptions:
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(1) The universe is put together in an orderly way,
subject to absolute and unchanging laws
(2) Understand laws through logic and wisdom
Important Question?????
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Why would philosophers start question
traditional beliefs at this particular time in
Athenian history????
Socrates
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Absolute standards did exist for truth and justice
Question yourself and moral character
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“The unexamined life is not worth living”
399 BC, age 60, trial for “corrupting youth of Athens”
and “neglecting the city’s Gods”
His defense: teachings good for Athens, because
forced people to think about their actions and values
Condemned to death, drinking hemlock
Important Question?????
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How does the trail of Socrates reflect on
Athenian democracy???
Plato
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Student of Socrates
370 BC wrote The Republic, set forth vision
of a perfectly governed society
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Not democracy
All citizens fall naturally into 3 groups
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(1) farmers and artisans
(2) warriors
(3) ruling class
Person with greatest insight and intellect from
ruling class would e chosen as philosopher-king
IMPORTANT QUESTION???
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Why wasn’t Plato put to death if he was doing
the same thing as Socrates was?!?!?
Aristotle
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Student of Plato
Questioned nature of world and of human
belief, thought, and knowledge
Invented method of arguing according to
rules of logic
Invented basis of scientific method used
today
Famous pupil Alexander the Great (more
information to follow….)
Alexander the Great
Socrates
Raphael
Plato
Aristotle
TERMS, defined……
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Direct Democracy: form of government in which citizens rule
directly and not through representation
Classical Art: ancient Greece, in which harmony, order, and
proportion were emphasized
Tragedy: serious drama about love, hate, war, and/or betrayal
Comedy: Scenes with slapstick comedy and crude humor
Peloponnesian War: Sparta v. Athens
Socrates: philosopher, “the unexamined life is not worth living”,
developed Socratic method of teaching, sentenced to death by
drinking hemlock
Plato: philosopher, student of Socrates, The Republic was his
vision of perfect government
Aristotle: philosopher, student of Plato, invented basis of
scientific method and classifying plants and animals, most
famous student was Alexander the Great
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Ancient Greece Unit 3: Democracy and Greece`s Golden Age