American Indians
In early Arkansas
For use in grades 1-5 classrooms
Arkansasheritage.com
Arkansas frameworks related to American Indians in
Arkansas

The following frameworks are addressed in the following Power Point,
grades K-5
– H.6.K.9: Understand the name of Arkansas originated from the
Quapaw Indians
– H.6.2.11: Recognize American Indian tribes of Arkansas: Osage,
Quapaw and Caddo
– H.6.3.14: Identify and describe the Arkansas Indian tribes: Osage,
Quapaw, and Caddo
– H.6.4.15: Identify the reasons for the decline of the native populations
of Arkansas (e.g. influenza, small pox, competition for land)
– H.6.5.29: Locate and describe the three main Indian cultures in
Arkansas during the exploration period: Quapaw, Caddo and Osage
Indians
Who are American Indians?

American Indians were the first people to live in the
Americas. They were here before the Europeans came
and settled in the area we call the United States.
This map shows you where
American Indians live today
There were three main American Indian tribes
in early Arkansas
Caddo
 Osage
 Quapaw

Let’s find out about the Caddo
Nation!

The original name of the Caddo was
Cadohadacho
When the Europeans came to North
America, the Caddo lived in the present
states of Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma,
and Texas.
 Today, most of the Caddo live in the state
of Oklahoma.

The Caddo looked like this
Osage Nation

The Osage Indians also lived in Arkansas
– They originally lived in present day Oklahoma,
Missouri, Kansas and Arkansas.
– Today, most of the people of the Osage
Nation live in Oklahoma.
The Quapaw Tribe

The name Quapaw (Ugakhpa or O-gahpah) is translated as “people who live
downstream.”
Our state is named for this
American Indian tribe!
The Quapaw looked like this
Other early American Indians in Arkansas:
Tunica-Biloxi Tribe and Chickasaw Nation

The Tunica-Biloxi Tribe mainly lived in
Mississippi, Louisiana and Arkansas.

Today the Tunica-Biloxi people are
referred to as the Tunica-Biloxi Tribe of
Louisiana and live in Louisiana.
The people of the Chickasaw Nation lived in the
northeast corner of the state.

The Chickasaw primarily lived in the states
of Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee,
Kentucky and Missouri.

Today most of the Chickasaw live in the
state of Oklahoma.
Culture of the Caddo, Osage and
Quapaw

Culture is how a people live. It includes
such things as the following: their
language, clothing, hair styles,
transportation, food, homes, how children
are raised, music, arts, and folklore. Let’s
look at the culture of the these three
tribes : the Caddo, Osage and
Quapaw.
First, the Caddo!

Language

Most Caddo speak
English today but
many also speak
the Caddo
language.

Example:
“Kua’at”(pronounced Kooah-aht) is a friendly
greeting.
Caddo men’s clothing

Caddo men wore
breechcloths

and sometimes
leather leggings.
Caddo women

Caddo women wore
wraparound skirts and
poncho tops made of
deerskin. They usually
braided their hair or tied
it back with ribbons.

Both men and women
wore earrings and
moccasins.
Hair styles!

Men wore their hair in a
scalplock. (One long
lock of hair on top of
their head usually
braided).

Sometimes the men wore
a “ roach” or headpiece
made of red-dyed deer
hair and turkey beards.
“turkey roach”
Women and hair styles
Caddo women usually
wore their long hair in
a bun.
 For special occasions
they would add
ornaments or ribbons
to their bun.

Caddo transportation

The Caddo preferred
to travel by land but
also made dugout
canoes out of logs for
travel by water.
What kind of food did the Caddo
eat?

The Caddo Indians were farmers and
hunters.
– They grew corn, beans, pumpkins and
sunflowers.
– They hunted deer, buffalo and small game
and fished.
Tools used by the Caddo
To hunt they used
bows and arrows
 They also made axes
with a heavy stone
head to chop wood.
 When they fought
other people, they
used their bows and
arrows and their
tomahawk.

Caddo ax
Caddo homes

Caddo homes were
tall, dome-shaped
grass houses.
Sometimes they were
so large, 30 people
could live in them!
How were Caddo children raised?

Caddo children were busy doing chores for
the family. They did not have much play
time.
– They did play with dolls and toys. A game
they played was trying to throw a dart
through a moving hoop. (hoop dart anyone?)
Caddo art

The Caddo people
were famous for their
pottery.
Caddo music
The favorite Caddo
musical instrument is
the drum. As drums
are played, other
Caddo dance and
sing.
Caddo Indian legends and folklore

One story is called, “Village Boy and Wild
Boy.” It is about mythical twins whose
mother was killed by a monster.

Another story is called “Coyote.” It is
about a tricky figure who gets involved in
different forms of mischief!
Next is the Osage!

What was their
language?

As with the Caddo
Indians, the Osage
speak English today,
but there is a
renewed interest in
learning the Osage
language which is
part of the Dhegihan
language group.
Osage clothing

Osage women wore
trade cloth dresses and
leggings.

Both men and women
wore moccasins and
long buffalo hide robes
in cold weather.
As with the Caddo, they
wore tattoos.

Osage women wore clothes similar to this.
Osage men

Osage men wore
breechcloths and
leggings just like the
Caddo men did.
Hairstyles and headdresses
Osage men either
wore their hair long
or in a scalplock
fashion.
 If they had a scalp
lock they would
sometimes wear a
“roach.”

Osage Women

Osage women wore
their hair braided or
tied back with
ribbons.
Osage transportation
The Osage used dogs to
carry heavy loads
when they traveled.
It would look something
like this!
Osage food
The Osage were big
game hunters. They
liked to hunt buffalo.
Before they had
horses, the men
would drive the
buffalo off a cliff to
kill them.
 Osage women raised
corn, beans, squash
and pumpkins.

Osage tools and weapons
The Osage used bows
and arrows and were
known for their
excellent long bows.
 In battles they also
fought with clubs and
spears!

Osage homes

The Osage lived in settled
villages and their homes
were called lodges.
Lodges were made of elm
bark.
Music of the Osage

As with the Caddo, the
Osage played drums and
a flute-like instrument.
Osage folklore

A popular story among the Osage is “The
Spider and the People.” This story is
about how the spider became the symbol
for the Osage.
And now, the Quapaw!

The Quapaw
language

Like the Caddo and
Osage Indians, the
Quapaw speak
English but many also
speak their Quapaw
language.
What did the Quapaw men wear?

Similarly to other Native Americans, the
men wore breechcloths with leather
leggings and buckskin shirts.
Men and women both wore moccasins and
long buffalo robes in cold weather.
 In warm weather, the Quapaw wore less
clothing, just like us!

Quapaw women

Quapaw women wore long deerskin dresses
and wore their hair loose or braided.
Quapaw men’s hairstyles and head
coverings!

Quapaw men often
adorned their heads with
a scalplock and wore a
“roach” like Caddo and
Osage men.

Quapaw Leaders
sometimes wore a
headdress.
Tribal tattoos

Native Americans had
special tattoos
depending on their
tribe and their deeds.

These tattoos had
religious significance.
tattoos
Transportation
The Quapaw knew how to make dugout
canoes from cypress trees, but they
usually traveled by land.
 They used dogs to pull a travois (like a
sled) when they traveled by land. (The
Osage did this also.)

What did the Quapaw eat?

The Quapaw ate basically the same things
as the Caddo and Osage. The were
farmers and ate corn, beans and squash.

The men provided meat through the
hunting of small game and organized
buffalo hunts.
Tools and weapons

The Quapaw used
bows and arrows to
hunt and to fight.
They also used war
clubs and spears.

War clubs could take
many different forms.
Quapaw homes

Quapaw homes took
time to build. They
were made of river
cane, wood and vines
and coated with
plaster. The roof was
usually made of grass
or tree bark.
Quapaw children

Quapaw children did the
same thing that Caddo
and Osage children did.
They did chores and
sometimes got to play
with dolls or play games.

As with other Native
Americans, Quapaw
mothers carried a young
child in a cradleboard on
her back.
Image is courtesy of the Wisconsin
Historical Society,
www.wisconishistory.org
Art by the Quapaw

This is Quapaw
artwork.
Here is an example of
Quapaw beadwork.
Music and the Quapaw

Like the Caddo and Osage, the Quapaw
enjoyed music and dancing.
Quapaw stories and legends

Storytelling was very important to the
Quapaw. One of their stories is about a
monster or ogre.
What were the roles of men and
women among these three Indian
tribes?

Primarily the women were farmers, childcare givers and cooks.
The men were the hunters and sometimes
warriors if necessary. Chiefs were usually
men.
 Both men and women participated in
artwork, music, storytelling and medicine.

What type of government did they
have?

Most Indian tribes/nations elected chiefs
based on their character, family descent
and ability.
– Chiefs were usually men but could be women.

A tribal council actually governed the tribe
or nation.
Where are the American Indians of Arkansas today?

There are no federally recognized Indian tribes in
Arkansas today. What are the reasons?
– Disease
 American Indians did not have immunities from
European introduced diseases such as influenza,
small pox, measles, mumps, etc.
 Fifty to eighty percent of American Indians died in
the first century of European contact.
Decline of American Indian population, continued

Warfare
– Battles between American Indian tribes
caused a decline
– The introduction of firearms (guns) made
battle more deadly
Decline of population (3)

Enslavement
– Some American Indians were kidnapped and
forced to be slaves in rich agricultural lands to
the east
Decline of population (4)

Desire for Indian land
– After the purchase of the Louisiana territory
by the U.S. government in 1803, many
European settlers moved to the area.
 Treaties were signed that essentially took the land
away from the American Indians.
 The land was a rich agricultural region desired by
the new immigrants to the area
Let’s do a
Review!
First the Caddo American Indians
American
Indian
tribe
Language
Clothing
Caddo Originally they
Men wore
spoke the Caddo breechcloths and
language.
leather leggings.
Today they
speak English
and many of
them also speak
the Caddo
language.
Women wore
skirts and tops
made of animal
skins.
Both wore
moccasins and
earrings.
Hair & hair
styles
Men wore their
hair long or in a
style called a
scalplock
They sometimes
wore a “ roach”.
Women wore long
hair in a bun.
American
Indian
Tribe
Caddo
Food
Transportation
The Caddo liked to
travel by land, but
also made dugout
canoes for travel by
water.
They grew and ate
corn, beans,
pumpkins, and
sunflowers.
Also, they hunted
deer, buffalo, small
game and fished.
Native
Tribe
Tools and
weapons
Caddo
Bows and arrows were They were tall,
used to hunt. Axes
dome-shaped
were used to chop
grass houses.
wood.
In battle they used
bows and arrows and
tomahawks.
Homes
American
Indian tribe
Caddo
Children
They helped with chores.
When they had time they
played with dolls and toys
and played games!
Art
The Caddo
were famous
for their very
nice pottery.
American
Indian tribe
Music
Legends and
folklore
Caddo
The Caddo loved
the drum. They
also loved to
dance and sing.
The Caddo had
legends and
stories they
passed down
through their
children.
Time to review the
Osage!
American
Indian
tribe
Language
Osage The Osage
Clothing
Osage men
spoke their own wore
language, but
breechcloths
now speak
and leggings.
English. Many
speak their
Women wore
native language deerskin
also.
dresses and
leggings.
Both wore
moccasins and
tattoos.
Hair styles
Men wore their
hair long or
wore a scalplock.
Sometimes
they added a
“roach.”
Women wore
their long hair
loose or
braided.
American
Transportation Food
Indian Tribe
The Osage
Osage people
Osage
preferred to travel
by land. They
would use dog
sleds to carry heavy
loads when they
traveled. This is
called a travois.
liked to hunt big
game such as
buffalo. The
women raised
corn, beans,
squash and
pumpkins.
American Tools and
Indian
weapons
tribe
The Osage used
Osage
bows and arrows
and longbows.
They also used
clubs and spears
in battle.
Homes
Osage homes were
called a lodge. They
were made of elm
bark.
American
Children
Indian Tribe
Osage children
Osage
performed
chores and had
some time to
play. When
they played,
they used dolls,
toys and games.
Art
Pottery and
beadwork were
crafts at which
the Osage
excelled.
American
Indian
Tribe
Osage
Music
Folklore and
legends
They played
the drums
and a flutelike
instrument.
Both men and women
told stories to pass on
information to the
children. One special
story was about how
the spider became
the symbol for the
Osage.
And now, it’s the ????
Quapaw!
American Language
Indian
Tribe
Quapaw
Like other native
tribes, the
Quapaw had
their own
language.
Clothing
The men wore
breechcloths
with leggings
and buckskin
shirts.
Women wore
long deerskin
Today they
dresses.
speak English
and many speak Both wore
their native
moccasins and
language also
tattoos.
Hair and
hair styles
Quapaw men
shaved their
heads except
for a scalplock. They also
wore a roach.
Women wore
their long hair
loose or
braided.
American Transportation
Indian tribe
Quapaw
Food
The Quapaw made They ate corn,
and traveled by
beans and
dugout canoes.
squash.
They also used
dogs to pull a
travois or sled
when traveling
with heavy loads
by land.
The men hunted
small game and
buffalo.
American Tools and
weapons
Indian
Tribe
Homes
Quapaw
Their homes were
permanent and took
time to build. They
were made of wood,
vine, river cane and
had a roof of grass
or tree bark.
The Quapaw
people used
bows and
arrows and
clubs and
spears.
American Children
Indian tribe
Quapaw
Quapaw children,
like other
children, helped
with the family
chores and
sometimes got to
play with toys or
play games.
Art
The Quapaw
were very good
at making
pottery and
doing
beadwork.
American Music
Indian
Tribe
Legends and
folktales
Quapaw
Storytelling was
important to the
Quapaw as it was with
the Caddo and Osage.
One of their stories was
about a monster!
The Quapaw
also liked to
play musical
instruments
and to dance!
Review: Why did American Indian population decline
in Arkansas?
Which are the correct answers?
-attacks by savage animals
-disease
-storms
-floods
-desire for their land by European settlers
-warfare
-earthquakes
-enslavement
That ends the Power Point on American
Indians of Arkansas
Caddo
Osage
Quapaw
The information
information in
in this
this power
power point
point was
was made
made possible
possible through
through
The
the many
many great
great sources
sources on
on the
the internet
internet and
and in
in books
books available.
available.
the
There are
are many
many internet
internet sites
sites and
and books
books on
on the
the Native
Native
There
Americans of
of Arkansas
Arkansas available
available from
from those
those who
who have
have worked
worked
Americans
hard to
to preserve
preserve Native
Native American
American history.
history. Each
Each tribe
tribe has
has its
its own
own
hard
website to
to preserve
preserve its
its history
history and
and its
its culture..
culture.. AA list
list of
of internet
internet
website
sites follows
follows on
on the
the next
next two
two slides.
slides. II would
would like
like to
to thank
thank Dr.
Dr.
sites
Trey Berry,
Berry, author
author of
of The
The Arkansas
Arkansas Journey
Journey,, for
for his
his advice
advice and
and
Trey
guidance and
and the
the many
many people
people who
who have
have preserved
preserved information
information
guidance
on the
the rich
rich heritage
heritage of
of American
American Indians.
Indians.
on
This power point was produced by Michele Wasson,
Education Coordinator, Department of Arkansas
Heritage.
Matt Reed, Curator of American Indian
Collections, Oklahoma Historical Society, edited
and approved this Power Point for use in the
elementary classroom.
Internet sources used






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http://www.google.com/images?q=Osage+women&rls=com.micros
oft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&oe=&um=1&ie=UTF8&source=og&sa=N&hl=en&tab=wi&biw=1259&bih=823
http://www.osagetribe.com/
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/themes/nativeamericans/
http://www.bigorrin.org/osage_kids.htm
http://www.bigorrin.org/caddo_kids.htm
http://www.bigorrin.org/chickasaw_kids.htm
http://www.google.com/images?hl=en&biw=1276&bih=809&gbv=2
&tbs=isch%3A1&sa=1&q=Tunica+indians&btnG=Search&aq=f&aqi
=g1&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai=
http://www.southshore.com//louisianapurchase.htm
Sources, continued













http://www.arkansasarcheology.org
http://www.google.com/images?hl=en&source=imghp&biw=1276&bih=809
&q=quapaw+indians&gbv=2&aq=f&aqi=g2&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai=
http://www.google.com/images?hl=en&biw=1276&bih=809&gbv=2&tbs=is
ch%3A1&sa=1&q=Caddo+Indians&aq=f&aqi=g10&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai=
http://www.chickasaw.net/index
http://www.google.com/images?hl=en&biw=1276&bih=809&gbv=2&tbs=is
ch%3A1&sa=1&q=Tunica+indians&btnG=Search&aq=f&aqi=g1&aql=&oq=
&gs_rfai=
http://www.native-languages.org/arkansas.htm
http://www.osagetribe.com/
http://www.native-languages.org/osage.htm
http://nmai.si.edu/subpage.cfm?subpage=visitor
http://www.ehow.com/about_4569448_quapaw-indian-tribe.html
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/quapaw/quapawhist.htm
http://www.bigorrin.org/quapaw_kids.htm
http://wisconsinhistory.org
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