Fascist in Italy and Germany 18.4 Fascist in Italy Benito Mussolini, a former socialist, organized the Fascist Party. Fascism was a doctrine that relied on dictatorship and a totalitarian regime. Fascism was the opposite of communism. Communism promised a society without social classes in which property is shared. Fascism promised to preserve social classes and private property. Italy and Black Shirts Fascists were called Black Shirts for the color of their uniforms. They conducted violent campaigns against opponents, breaking up strikes and intimidating voters. Appointed Mussolini as premier. Once in office Mussolini destroyed democracy, suspended basic liberties, and became dictator. Uniformed and secret police spied on everyone. Corporatist State He made Italy a corporatist state. Major economic activities, such as agriculture, transportation,manufacturing, and commerce, were organized into corporations. They preserved social classes, private property, and limited profits. German Change Delegates drafted a constitution in the city of Weimar (VY·mar). The government became known as the Weimar Republic. Germans despised the Weimar Republic for signing the Treaty of Versailles Germany faced the same economic, political, and social problems as other European countries. Nazi Party The new National Socialist German Workers’ Party, or Nazi Party extremely nationalistic and anticommunist. By 1921 Adolf Hitler was head of the party. He called the Germans the “master race.” outlined his plan for racial purity through elimination of Jews and other “impure” races. Hitler promised to restore Germany’s power and its lost lands. Taking Over In 1933 the president of the republic appointed Hitler as chancellor. Someone set fire to the Reichstag. Hitler blamed the communists he made himself dictator. took the title der Führer (FYOOR·ur) He made Germany a police state, banning opposition parties and newspapers. He gave the Gestapo, a secret police force, wide-ranging powers. Jewish Question Jews suffered persecution. forced them to live in separate neighborhoods called ghettos. Jews had to wear the Star of David, sent them to concentration camps. Third Reich Hitler reminded Germans of their nation’s former glory. called his rule the Third Reich, or “Third Empire.” He He violated the Treaty of Versailles. Germany began secretly rebuilding its military. Neither France nor England reacted.