Foundations: 8000 B.C.E.600 C.E.* *AP World History New Periods •8000 BCE- 600 BCE •600 BCE- 600 CE Foundations Themes Interaction and Exchange Urbanization Nomadic Peoples Axial Age Empires Spread of Religion Key Concept 1.1. Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth Migration of hunting and foraging humans Adaptations of technology and culture (fire, new tools, animistic, small kinship groups, limited interactions) Key Concept 1.2. The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies Key Concept 1.3. The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral and Urban Societies What is a Civilization? Origins of termStandard criteria: Use of term? Civilizations? Population DemographyWhat factors influence population growth and decline? Role of Climate and Geography in Early Societies Imagine how were early societies may have been affected. How do you think early peoples responded? What difference would geography make in the long term development of a society? Comparison of Egypt and Mesopotamia Egypt Predictable flood Mesopotamia Irregular flooding Finding Early Historical Evidence Types of Sources David Keyes, Catastrophe Changing interpretations and new evidence Nomadic Peoples Hunting-gathering lifestyle (!Kung people) Labor/ leisure Population growth Gender relations Rise of Agriculture Spontaneous separate development – why, where and when? Diffusion of specific plants and techniques Birth of New Technologies Fire Bronze Iron Early Societies Mesopotamia Egypt Indus Shang Mesoamerica and Andean South America (Olmec and Chavin) Urbanization Comparisons between urban, pastoral and nomadic life Period 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies, c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E. Key Concept 2.1. The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions Key Concept 2.2. The Development of States and Empires Key Concept 2.3. Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and Exchange Classical Societies Axial ageWhy then? Results: Religion Politics Social Structure Gender relations Axial Age Thinkers Empire Building What does an empire require? What do its subjects expect? Symbols of legitimacy Symbols of Legitimacy Achievements Greek science and philosophy Roman law and architecture Political organization in Han China Spiritual and artistic developments in Gupta India Urbanization and Gender How might gender roles be affected as peoples settled? Origins of World Belief Systems Polytheism Origins of World Belief Systems Hinduism Origins of World Belief Systems Judaism Origins of World Belief Systems Confucianism Origins of World Belief Systems Daoism Origins of World Belief Systems Buddhism Origins of World Belief Systems Christianity Origins of World Belief Systems Islam Diffusion of Belief Systems Collapse of Empires Why do Empires fall? Conrad-Demarest Model Early Migrations Interregional Networks of People by 600 C.E. Silk Roads Mediterranean trade Indian Ocean trade Meso and Andean American trading Silk Routes Mediterranean Trade Routes Indian Ocean Trade Conclusions How do we know what we know? How does change happen? What results stem from interaction through migration, trade or pilgrimage? Do case studies detract from the bigger story or enrich it? Why do world historians need to pose questions differently than regional specialists?