RESURGENCE OF
EMPIRE IN EAST
ASIA
CHINA UNDER THE SUI,
TANG, AND SONG
•
ANARCHY IN CHINA
Three Kingdoms 220-280
–
–
Shu Han 221 – 263
Wei 220 - 265
•
•
•
–
•
Wu 222 – 280
Jin Dynasty 265-420
–
Western Jin 265 – 316 and Eastern Jin 317 – 420
•
•
–
•
Only time during interregnum when China was united
Intermixture of nomads and Chinese accelerated
Sixteen Kingdoms 304 – 420
Southern and Northern Dynasties 420-589
–
Southern Dynasties
•
•
•
•
–
Liu Song 420 – 479
Southern Qi 479 – 502
Liang 502 - 557
Chen 557 ~589
Northern Dynasties
•
•
•
•
•
•
Most powerful, eventually conquered Shu
Built an army of Chinese infantry and nomadic cavalry as mounted bowmen
These assimilated nomads later overthrew Wei and founded own dynasties
Later [Northern] Wei 386 – 534
Eastern Wei 534 -550
Western Wei 535 – 556
Northern Qi 550 – 577
Northern Zhou 557 ~581
Period Resembled Western European history after the collapse of the Romans
–
Disunity and civil war between nomads and Chinese warlords
•
•
•
•
•
–
Rival states, dynasties, each controlling a part of the old Han state
Aristocrats, provincial nobles held land and real influence
Many of the northern dynasties were nomadic, both Turkish and Mongol
Confucianism in decline, Buddhism in ascendancy due to its relationship with the nomads
Confucian trained bureaucrats still held much influence
Common Chinese subject to taxes, warfare, drafting into army, frequent invasions, bandits
BUDDHISM ARRIVES IN CHINA
•
Foreign religions in China: Nestorian, Muslim, Buddhist merchant communities
–
–
•
Oases on the Silk Road were very mixed
Became location for foreign settlements, transmission of foreign faiths to China
Buddhism in China
–
–
–
•
Attraction: moral standards, intellectual sophistication, salvation, appeal to women, poor
Monasteries became large landowners, helped the poor and needy
Posed a challenge to Chinese cultural traditions
Buddhism and Daoism
–
–
–
•
Chinese monks explained Buddhist concepts in Daoist vocabulary
Dharma as dao, and nirvana as wuwei
Teaching: one son in monastery would benefit whole family for 10 generations
Mahayana Buddhism
–
–
–
•
Buddhism blended with Chinese characteristics
Buddha as a man became Buddha as a god, saint
Stupa became a pagoda; Buddha became fat or feminine
Chan Buddhism
–
–
A further evolution of Buddhism
Chan (or Zen in Japanese) was a popular Buddhist sect
•
•
–
•
Emphasized intuition and sudden flashes of insight
Mediation techniques resembled Daoist practice
Monasteries appeared in all major cities
Hostility to Buddhism
–
–
–
•
Resistance from Daoists and Confucians
Popular criticism focused on celibacy, alien origin,
Governmental criticism: unproductive land, could not tax
Persecution
–
–
–
Critics of Buddhism found allies in the imperial court
Tang emperor ordered closure of monasteries in 840s
Buddhism survived because of popular support
SUI DYNASTY
•
After fall of the Han, turmoil lasted for more than 350 years
–
–
•
Three major states contended for rule; further fragmentation
Nomads constantly invaded, created their own states, dynasties
The rule of the Sui
–
–
–
–
•
Reunification by Yang Jian in 589
Constructions of palaces and granaries, repairing the Great Wall
Military expeditions in central Asia and Korea
High taxes and compulsory labor services
The Grand Canal
–
–
–
–
•
One of the world's largest waterworks before modern times
Purpose: bring abundant food supplies of the south to the north
Linked the Yangtze and the Huang-Hi
The canal integrated the economies of the south and north
The fall of the Sui
–
–
–
–
High taxes and forced labor generated hostility among the people
Military reverses in Korea
Rebellions broke out in north China beginning in 610
Sui Yangdi was assassinated in 618, the end of the dynasty
IMAGES OF SUI CHINA
THE TANG DYNASTY
•
Founding of the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907 CE)
– A rebel leader seized Chang'an, proclaimed a new dynasty, the Tang
– Tang Taizong
• 2nd Tang emperor, a ruthless but extremely competent ruler
• China enjoyed an era of unusual stability and prosperity
•
•
•
Extensive networks of transportation and communications
Adopted the equal-field system
Bureaucracy of merit
– Recruited government officials through civil service examinations
– Career bureaucrats relied on central government, loyal to the dynasty
– Restored Confucianism as state ideology, training for bureaucrats
•
Foreign relations
– Political theory: China was the Middle Kingdom, or the center of civilization
– Tributary system became diplomatic policy
•
Tang decline
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Casual and careless leadership led to dynastic crisis
Rebellion of An Lushan in 755, weakened the dynasty
The Uighurs became de facto rulers
The equal-field system deteriorated
A large scale peasant rebellion led by Huang Chao lasted from 875 to 884
Regional commanders gained power, beyond control of the emperor
The last Tang emperor abdicated his throne in 907
TANG CHINA
TANG ART
SONG DYNASTY (960-1279 C.E.)
• Song Taizu
– Reigned 960-976 C.E.
– Founder of the Song dynasty
• Song weaknesses
– Song never had military, diplomatic strength of Sui, Tang
– Financial problems
• Enormous bureaucracy with high salary devoured surplus
• Forced to pay large tribute to nomads to avoid war
– Military problems
• Civil bureaucrats in charge of military forces
• Military was largely foot soldiers at war with cavalry nomads
– External pressures
• Semi-nomadic Khitan, nomadic Jurchen attacked in north
• Constant drain on treasury to pay tribute to nomads
– The Song moved to the south, ruled south China until 1279
• Nomads invaded, overran northern Song lands
• Song retreated to the South along Yangtze, moved capital
• After defeat, constantly forced to pay tribute
THE SONG WORLD
NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN
DYNASTIES
THE SONG ARTISTIC WORLD
DEMOGRAPHIC AND
ENVIRONMENTAL DEVELOPMENTS
• An agricultural revolution
– Twice flowering, fast-ripening rice increased food supplies
– New agricultural techniques increased production
– Population growth
• 45 to 115 million inhabitants
• Between 600 and 1200 C.E.
• Urbanization: China most urbanized country in period
– Chang'an had about 2 million residents
– Hangzhou had about 1 million residents
– Many cities boasted population of 100,000 or more
• Commercialized agriculture
– Some regions depended on other regions for food
– Extreme surplus of southern rice allowed cities to flourish
– Necessitate vast grain shipments to cities
CH’ANG-AN & HANGZHOU
NEO-CONFUCIANISM
•
Taoist, Buddhist Synthesis with Confucianism
– Early Confucianism focused on practical issues
• Politics, Public Morality, Social Relationships
– Confucians drew inspiration
• From Buddhism Spirituality
– Logical thought
– Argumentation of Buddhism
• From Taoism Cosmology
– Metaphysical issues: nature of soul
– Man's relation with cosmos
•
Xenophobia Contributes, too
– Invasions by nomads, Turks and Mongols threatened state
– Foreign ideas began to circulate
– Too many threats to society, traditions
•
•
Zhu Xi (1130-1200 C.E.), most prominent Neo-Confucian scholar
Neo-Confucian influence
– Adapted Buddhist, Taoist themes, reasoning to Confucian interests
– Made Buddhism Chinese but stressed Chinese roots, values
– Influenced East Asian thought
• In China, it was an officially recognized creed
• Influenced Korea, Vietnam, and Japan for half a millennium
PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY
•
Developments reinforced patriarchal society
–
Chinese reaction to foreign ideas
•
•
•
–
–
•
Reaction to Buddhist’s gender equality
Neo-Confucianism emphasized patriarchy
Ancestor worship revived
Preserving of family
Family wealth became paramount
Results
–
–
•
Tightening of patriarchal structure
Reinforcing of male domination
Foot binding gained popularity during the Song
–
Emphasized dependence of women on men, home
•
•
•
•
–
•
Wealthy, aristocrats could afford practice, hire servants to do work
Feet of women broken, reformed around stilts
Women could not walk without pain but had to shuffle
Forced women to remain at home, dependent on others
Male sense of beauty at women’s expense
Poor, peasant women not subject to footbinding
–
–
Women had to work with men to support family
Men could not afford to have women at home, idle
TECHNOLOGY & INDUSTRY
•
Porcelain
–
–
–
•
High quality porcelain since the Tang, known as chinaware
Technology diffused to other societies, especially to Abbasid Arabia
Exported vast quantities to southeast Asia, India, Persia, and Africa
Metallurgy
–
–
•
Improvement: used coke instead of coal in furnaces to make iron, steel
Iron production increased tenfold between the early 9th and 12th century
Gunpowder
–
–
–
•
Discovered by Daoist alchemists during the Tang
Bamboo "fire lances," a kind of flame thrower, and primitive bombs
Gunpowder chemistry diffused throughout Eurasia
Printing
–
–
–
•
Became common during the Tang
From block-printing to movable type
Books became widespread
Naval technology
–
–
"South-pointing needle" - the magnetic compass
Double hulled junks with rudder, water-tight compartments
SONG LIFE
A MARKET ECONOMY
•
Merchants in Charge
–
–
–
–
–
•
Only period in China where merchants socially superior to aristocrats
Merchants attempted to intermarry with aristocrats, become landowners
Merchants attempted to have sons admitted as Confucian bureaucrats
Merchants tended to espouse Confucianism as way into traditional elites
Most large cities had large merchant communities
Financial instruments
–
–
–
•
Banking and credit institution
“Flying money " were letters of credit
Paper money backed by state, treasury
A cosmopolitan society
–
–
–
•
Foreign merchants in large cities of China
Mostly Arab (Muslim), Indian, S.E. Asian
Chinese merchants journeyed throughout region
Economic surge in China
–
–
–
An economic revolution in China
Made China the wealthiest nation in the world at time
Promoted economic growth in the eastern hemisphere