Fourth Edition
ANTHONY GIDDENS ● MITCHELL DUNEIER ● RICHARD P.APPELBAUM ● DEBORAH CARR
Chapter 16: Globalization in a Changing World
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The big issues
• Defining globalization
• Connecting globalization to modernity and
major social change
• Examining social movements: what they are
and how they are global
• Exploring which social forces lead to increased
globalization
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Globalization and social change
• Globalization is the process through which the
world is increasingly connected and
interdependent.
– At level of individuals, groups, organizations,
states, and so on
– This process is largely associated with economic
and political change.
• In the modern period, globalization has
accelerated rapidly.
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Linking globalization and social
change
•
•
•
•
•
Responding to environmental factors
Emergence of the political state
New communication technologies
Religious pluralism and the need for
tolerance
Expansion of industrial capitalism
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What follows modern society?
• Postindustrial society: Knowledge and
service become the primary products.
• Postmodernity: A rupture with core
understandings of history and belief—no
central narratives, only diversity
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The “Geek Squad,” a company founded by Robert Stephens
in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and later purchased by the Best
Buy retail chain, provides consumer computer support and
technical repairs.
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Social movements and social change
• Collective action is a factor in social
change.
• Many movements today—including the
anti-globalization movement—are global in
scope.
• We now have new social movements,
which are less goal-oriented and more
identity-oriented.
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Approaches to social movements
•
•
•
•
Economic deprivation
Resource mobilization
Structural strain
Fields of action
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Modern technology and social
movements
• Use of the Internet for organization and fundraising
• Speeds up the process with instant information and
response
• Allows for fast coordination of events like rallies,
protests, and so on
• Could indicate a shift in power
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What makes globalization?
• Economic factors
– Transnational corporations
– Integrated financial markets
• Global flow of information and communication
– Over 2 billion Internet users worldwide in
spring 2011
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What makes globalization?
• Political changes
– Fall of communist regimes
– Rise of IGOs and INGOs
– Rising importance of international
coalitions (the European Union, United
Nations, etc.)
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Globalization in everyday life
1. IKEA furniture
2. Wii games
3. H&M fashions
4. L’Oréal shampoos or beauty products
5. Samsung cell phone or PDA
6. Molson beer
7. Birkenstock sandals
8. Diesel jeans
9. Apple iPhone
10. American Express credit card
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Globalization in everyday life
1. IKEA: founded in Sweden, now owned by a
Dutch foundation
2. Wii: MNC in Kyoto, Japan
3. H&M: Swedish company
4. L’Oréal: Paris suburb
5. Samsung cell or PDA: Seoul, South Korea
6. Molson beer: Montreal, Canada
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Globalization in everyday life
7. Birkenstock sandals: Germany
8. Diesel jeans: Molvena, Italy
9. Apple iPhone: established in California, parts
from China
10. American Express: New York City
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The globalization debate
• There are three main positions:
– Skeptics
– Hyperglobalizers
– Transformationalists
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Table 16.2 Conceptualizing Globalization: Three Tendencies
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How we feel about globalization
• Increasing need to construct our identities
• Significant shifts in work and family life
• Ubiquity of Western—especially American—
popular culture
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Risk in a global world
• Manufactured risk versus external risk
• Potentially devastating consequences
–
–
–
–
–
Urbanization and industrialization
Pollution
Global warming
Nuclear power
Bioengineered food
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Global inequality
•
Wealth increasingly concentrated in the
developed world
– Poorest 40 percent of global population =
5 percent of global income
– Richest 10 percent = 54 percent of global
income
• Global markets have exacerbated this
problem: the gap between rich and poor is
growing.
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The Widening Gap
Between Richer and Poor Countries, 1800 to 2008
Note: GDP for South Africa from 1911;
1900 data not available
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SOURCE: Gapminder.com 2009 World Bank 2011C.
The Widening Gap
Between Richer and Poorer Countries, 1800 to 2010
GDP PER CAPITA * 1800
2010
2010
USA
$1,343
$47,184
Japan
$896
$43,137
Germany
$1,643
$40,509
Republic of Korea
$740
$20,767
Brazil
$509
$10,710
South Africa
$759
$7,275
China
$992
$4,393
Egypt
$748
$2,699
Pakistan
$665
$1,007
Dem. Rep. of Congo $394
1980
1950
Low income
countries
Medium income
countries
High income
countries
$199
MEDIAN GDP PER CAPITA
* 2010 U.S. $
$40K
Note: GDP for South Africa from 1911;
1900 data not available
1900
$20K
$0K
1800
1800
1850
1900
1950
2000
SOURCE: Gapminder.com 2009. World Bank 2011C.
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Does free trade help?
• Many INGOs believe free trade will reduce
global inequality.
• Critics argue that a global justice movement
that pushes for trade organized around
protecting rights and resources is needed.
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This concludes the Lecture
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Chapter 16: Globalization in a Changing World
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Clicker Questions
1. Social change is the transformation over time of
a. revolution.
b. the institutions and culture of society.
c. social movements.
d. collective behavior.
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Clicker Questions
2. Which of the following is considered a cultural factor in social
change?
a. political organization
b. religion
c. environmental conditions
d. industrial capitalism
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Clicker Questions
3. What factor helps to explain the rise of new social movements over the
past few decades?
a. Traditional political institutions are increasingly ignoring a whole set of
new threats, ranging from environmental crises to genetically modified
organisms, because they are unable to cope with the challenges of
trying to find solutions to them.
b. People today feel less isolated than in the past and are more willing to
join movements.
c. Because these new movements are so focused on the economics and
politics of globalization, people from around the world are drawn to
them.
d. People today feel more entitled and bold when it comes to challenging
the government.
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Clicker Questions
4. When it comes to debates on globalization, Joaquin believes
that present levels of economic interdependence are not
unprecedented and that the growth of regionalization is
evidence that the world economy has become less rather than
more integrated. To which school of thought does Joaquin
belong?
a. skeptics
b. transformationalists
c. hyperglobalizers
d. individualists
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Clicker Questions
5. Globalization has many consequences. Next to mounting
___________ problems, the expansion of inequalities within
and between societies is one of the most serious challenges
facing the world at the start of the twenty-first century.
a. ecological
b. communication
c. political
d. individual
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