Why do religions have different distributions? Origin Universalizing religions have origins based on the life of a man. Ethnic religions have unclear or unknown origins not tied to single individuals. Christianity Founded upon the teachings of Jesus, born in Bethlehem between 4 and 8 B.C. and died about A.D. 30. Called the Messiah”, Greek for the anointed. Christians believe that he died for human sins, raised from the dead by God and that his resurrection provides hope for salvation. Roman Catholics Believe in Christianity – as well as the interpretation of the Church hierarchy headed by the pope. God conveys His grace directly to humanity through 7 sacraments including: Baptism, confirmation, penance, anointing the sick, matrimony, holy orders, and the Eucharist. (Transubstantiation) Eastern orthodox Spilt from the roman catholic church in 1054. Pope Leo IX condemned the patriarch of Constantinople. Eastern orthodox accepted the sacraments but not the doctrines that came after the 8th century. Islam Muslims trace their story through Hagar and Ishmael who were banished from Abrahams’ home. Ishmael’s descendant: Muhammad received a revelation from Gabriel (angel). His pilgrimage from Mecca to Yatrib (the Hijra) marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. Sunni’s and Shiite differences stem from disagreements over the line of succession of Muslim leadership. Buddhism Founded by Siddhartha Gautama His life changed after 4 trips. He left a privileged life and stayed in the forest for 6 years and emerged as the “Buddha” the enlightened one. Theravada – oldest branch, says that Buddhism is a full time occupation, renounce worldly goods and become a monk. Buddhism Mahayanists – say that their approach is less demanding and emphasizes Buddha’s later years of teaching and helping others. Theravadists emphasize Buddha’s wisdom. Mahayanists emphasize Buddha’s compassion. Ethnic origins The word Hinduism originated around 6th century B.C. Hindu documents existed prior to recorded history found date back to 1500 B.C. Artifacts date back to 2500 B.C. Aryan tribes brought Indo-European languages around 1400 B.C. the first in NW India (the Punjab). Diffusion of Religions All three hearths of Universalizing religions are in Asia. Christianity and Islam in SW Asia, Buddhism in South Asia. Diffusion of Christianity Diffused through missionaries by relocation diffusion. Paul of Tarsus preached extensively through roman territories. But the faith spread through contagious diffusion. It was solidified by hierarchal diffusion by Emperor Constantine in 313 and by Emperor Theodosius in 380 who made it the official religion. Diffusion of Christianity Migration since 1500 to other parts of the world have extended Christianity. Intermarriage and conversion have helped it become the dominant religion worldwide. Latin Americans – predominantly Catholic because of Spanish and Portuguese Canada and the US because of colonial settlers from protestant England. Diffusion of Islam Mainly through armies that conquered regions in the middle east and spread through intermarriage and conversion. Diffusion of Buddhism Asoka, the Emperor of the Magadhan empire became a Buddhist and tried to make it part of the social fabric. Asoka’s son made trips to places like Sri Lanka where they converted the king and his subjects. Through trade Buddhism was brought to China.