NEW IMPERIALISM:
MOTIVES AND TACTICS
Nineteenth-Century Empires
SUPERQUIZ
Section II – PART 4
13 questions – 32.5%
French Colonial Expansion
• Noted advocate of French colonial
expansion: French politician
_____________
Born:________; died:________
• He served
--as premier
--_____ terms during the
--_______Republic
• opposed by ____&_____
– Conservatives
– Socialists
The Speech
• Delivered before the ____________________in
_____(mo.) of _____ (yr.)
• directly combats the opponents of Ferry’s policies
• states the (2)
– economic and
– political
imperative of French expansion
• argues for the ____________________of current
French policies
• ____________voices are also heard in this
speech
– They reveal the basis for _________________
sentiment at the time
The Speech Itself - Act I: Jules Ferry1
• Ferry starts by stating his _________________ at having
to make such a long speech in front of the National
Assembly
– assures the “Chamber” that it is as strenuous for him as the
individual members
– thinks it his __________to summarize and condense the
arguments, principles, motives, and interests for the
justification of colonial expansion
• Ferry promises to remain ___________&reasonable in
his argument
– Major concern = _________________ interests
– policy of colonial expansion constitutes both a(n) __&__ sys.
• economic
• political
The system of Colonial Expansion
• can be related to three
ideas
• These ideas are
“_________ideas,
ideas of ____________
in its highest sense,
and ideas of p______
and p____________”
Job #1: the economic ideas
• 2 groups feel the need for EXPORT MARKETS:
– The _______________populations of Europe
– The ___________________________France particularly
feels the strain
• France needs EXPORT MARKETS because
– _____________treaties of ________have caused problems
– Markets recently open to France have shrunk (2 countries)
• Germany has surrounded itself with economic barriers
• The United States has recently made itself protectionist “in the
most extreme sense”
• Other industrialized countries are looking to France as
an export market for their own manufactured goods
Yo, Passy! I do not mean “mean to treat
[you] with any ___________”
• Ferry speaks directly to
– the _______________
– including _____________,
• who is present for this speech
• well-respected , ___________
economics
• Ferry speaks against
– this previous school of
economics
– _________________of France
________________of England
– also known as _____________
Say what, DOCTRINAIRES?
“the true export markets
are the
____________________
which furnish and assure
them”
COMMERCIAL TREATIES
• Ferry believes that commercial treaties
– Worked AFTER ____ BEFORE industrial revolution hit full stride
– DIDN’T work after
• “the development of science and
• the speeding up of _______________________________________”
• Competition in the______________market
– from ________________ did not ruin French agriculture
– No active competition from these 2 countries:
• America
• India
• France lived under commercial treaties with
____________and other great powers
– ____________“became an industrial power” : _____ and _____
• It takes TWO to TANGO!
– The _______________________refuses to make treaties
• Multiple French officials have reached this conclusion
Point #2: “ideas of________________in the highest
sense”
• point deserves equal
attention, but
• Ferry hopes to
accomplish it “as quickly
as possible”
• Ferry condemns the ideas
of M. Camille
____________________
‘‘What is this civilization which you
impose with_________________?
What is it but another form of
________________?
Don’t these populations, these
inferior races, have the same
_______________as you?
Aren’t they masters of their own
houses?
Have they called upon you?
You come to them against their will,
you offer them _______________,
but not civilization.’’
Point #2: “ideas of________________in the highest
sense”
• Ferry condemns the
ideas of M. Camille
Pellatan as political
________________
• These ideas do not
represent politics nor
____________________
• The FAR LEFT chimes in
Ah-ah!
at this idea
The FAR LEFT
“_______________races have _____________
rights over inferior races”
• The FAR LEFT erupts!
– M. Jules ___________
condemns Jules Ferry for his
statement
– France proclaimed the
_______________________
On the FAR LEFT: M. De Guilloutet
Ferry seeks
to justify
___________
and the
________
trade
The French have no
right to impose
• \
commerce
on the
“blacks of equatorial
Africa” if they are
included in the
____________________
These blacks have not
called upon French for
___________________
THE DEBATE
• M. Raoul Duval
– states that _____________wishes to impose nothing
upon these Africans
– it is ____________who hopes to do so
• M. Jules Maigne differentiates between
____posing an idea and _____posing an idea
• M. George Perin states that, “in any case,
you cannot bring about commerce by ________”
SUPERIOR RACES have
a______ to civilize
• \
INFERIOR
RACES.
• The LEFT
HOORAY!
• The RIGHT and the
EXTREME LEFT erupt in
new interruptions
Point #3 : “ideas of politics and
patriotism”
• Ferry borrows a “remarkably precise
formulation” from distinguished writer
M. Pelletan
‘‘It is a system which consists
of seeking out ____________
in the Orient with a
circumspect and peaceful
seclusion which is actually
imposed upon us in Europe.’’
I don’t like the use of the term
• \
“______________.”
I’ll ward off any injury being
inflicted on the French
government “with all the force
of [my] _______________”
HOORAY!
• THE LEFT & THE CENTER
Certain considerations ….
• The current conditions of naval warfare have been
altered
• A warship can only carry _________days worth of coal
– Without coal, a ship is dead in the water
• France needs countless reprovisioning stations and
shelters in and will hold them in (4 areas)
–
–
–
–
Saigon,
Tunisia,
the Mekong Delta,
and Madagascar
• France also holds the Madagascar ports of
– Diego-Suarez
– Vohemar
Nations achieve greatness only
through the ___________ they
develop.
The “peaceful shining forth of
__________________” does
not make countries great in this
day and age.
• Global ______________ is
increasing
– Some European powers strengthen
___________ and navy in order to
compete effectively
– Others focus on _______________
growth to overtake competitors
• A policy of _____________ will
only lead to cultural decline
I cannot believe that
the monarchy wants to
follow a policy of
______________and
_____________.
France does not follow
a policy of
“______and _______”
Fallen monarchs wish
to impose these
values on France. The
____________ Party
will NOT follow the
examples of
__________ and the
_______________
France must be both a
_______country and a____
____
country. As much as possible,
France must influence the
destiny of ________________.
France has a duty to
extend the French
__________,
__________,
__________,
______, and
__________
as much as possible.
2.11 SHORT ANSWER (pp. 47-49)
Six score and seven years ago….
• 1. What “three orders of ideas” does Jules
Ferry say that he will address?
• economic ideas,
• ideas of civilization in its highest sense,
• and ideas of politics and patriotism
• 2. According to Ferry what is French industry’s
biggest need and why?
• French industry needs export markets
because many markets have closed to them,
like
– Germany and
– the U.S.
• 3. Summarize the quote that Ferry reads from M.
Camille Pellatan and describe how Ferry responds to
the quote.
• Pelletan calls into question the “civilization” that
France pushes on non-Europeans with violence and
force, arguing that all humans have basic rights.
• Ferry responds by saying that the Declaration of the
Rights of Man doesn’t apply to all.
• He also reminds Pelletan that commerce is forced
upon the non-Europeans as well.
• 4. According to Ferry, why do the French need
ports in places like Madagascar and Tunisia?
• Since a warship cannot carry more than 14
days’ worth of coal, it was necessary to have
provision stations, shelters, ports for defense
and revictualling.
2.12 EITHER/OR (pp. 47-49)
Leno or Conan?
• 1. “Gentlemen, it (EXCITES, EMBARRASSES)
me to make such a prolonged demand upon
the gracious attention of the Chamber, but I
believe that the (DUTY, PRIVILEGE) I am
fulfilling upon this platform is not a (EASY,
USELESS) one.”
• 2. “…that need, felt more and more strongly
by the industrial population of Europe…the
need for (IMPORT, EXPORT) markets. Is this
some kind of (JOKE, CHIMERA)? Is this a view
of the future or is it not rather a (PRESSING,
PASSING) need, and, we could say, the cry of
our (AGRICULTURAL, INDUSTRIAL)
population?”
• 3. “Gentlemen, I must speaker from a
(HIGHER, LOWER) and more truthful (PLANE,
GROUND). It must be stated openly that, in
effect, (SOME, SUPERIOR) races have
(RIGHTS, ADVANTAGE) over inferior (RACES,
PEOPLE).”
• 4. “If the declaration of the rights of
(HUMANS, MAN) was written for the blacks of
equatorial Africa, then by what right do you
impose regular (COMMERCE, RULE) upon
them?”
• 5. “I (REFUTE, REPEAT) that superior races
have a (RIGHT, ABILITY), because they have a
duty. They have the duty to (CHRISTIANIZE,
CIVILIZE) inferior races.”
• 6. “[The Republican Party] is quite (UNAWARE,
AWARE) that one cannot impose upon France
a political ideal conforming to that of nations
like (INDEPENDENT, COLONIAL) Belgium and
the (OTTOMAN EMPIRE, SWISS REPUBLIC).”
• 7. “Something else is needed for France that she
cannot be merely a (FREE, AVERAGE) country,
that she must also be a (POWERFUL, GREAT)
country, exercizing all her rightful (POWER,
INFLUENCE) over the destiny of Europe, that she
ought to propagate this influence throughout the
(WORLD, CONTINENT) and carry everywhere that
she can her (LANGUAGE, CULTURE), her customs,
her (FLAG, BANNER), her arms, and her (LEGACY,
GENIUS).
PROJECTING A GREATER FRANCE
• Section II
• pp. 48-54
THE FRENCH
COLONIAL
EXHIBITION
OF 1931
“Projecting a Greater France”
• Written by ___________________
– lecturer in French History at the
University of ____________________
– In ________, he authored The Memory
of Resistance: French Opposition to the
__________ War : 19_____-19______
– as co-editor of the 1997 War and
Memory in the
_________________Century
The Colonial Exhibition: Preparations
• Marshal Hubert _________
– ______years old in 1931
– born in ______ and died in ______
– served as the
• architect of ___________ colonization
• _____________ of Morocco for a long
period of time
• The French regarded Lyautey as a
legend
• The white moustache and *______
The EPITOME of EMPIRE
haircut typified the muscular
______________________
*standing up like
• Lyautey’s relentless energy carried brush bristles
over into the Exhibition itself
PURPOSES of the Exhibition
• To touch the ________&________of its visitors
• to excite the popular imagination through its
emphasis on the
– wondrous,
– the exotic, and
– the curious
• stressed the _____________necessity of empire
– The ___________________________of 1929 further
reinforced this point
– Empire supposedly insulated France from the
____________________
•
The empire functioned as a large ________________
PROJECTING FRANCE’S MISSION
• The Exhibition also needed to project
France’s _________________mission within
its empire
– Enlightenment philosophy cast colonization as a
battle of ___________against _____________
• The ___________fought against the ____________
• with progress poised against “reactionary
________________and religious ______________”
– France needed to be held up as a _________
to which all should aspire
• ‘‘Our protection, you must
understand, delivered millions of
men, women and children from
the nightmare of slavery and
death.
• Do not forget that before we
came, on the African continent
the stronger dominated the
weaker, a woman was but a
beast and a child counted for
little.
• There where we found the
vestiges of an old civilization with
outdated beliefs…how much
work we have accomplished.”
~ Visitor’s Guide to the French Colonial
Exhibition, 1931
French Gov’t: Skillful Marketing
• Released of _____________collection illustrating
imperial scenes to coincide with the opening
• New media such as the _______&___________
stimulated popular interest
• French citizens disseminated
– prints,
– postcards, and
– photographs of the Exhibition
• Posters proclaimed that visitors could undergo a
“tour of the world in ___________________”
French Colonial Exposition of 1831
• The Exhibition cemented the new
relationship between France and its colonies
• The _______ Republic focused on building a
________________________
– Bring _____________people into a global culture
The Exhibition Opened _________
• 1931
– ____th anniversary of
annexation
– ____th anniversary of the
invasion of Algeria
• The _______________________
in ____________played host
• Grounds covered ______hectares
• Project prep took _____years
Tunisia’s
• Crowds clapped and cheered as President
_______________________arrived at the front gates of the Exhibition
• A squadron of colonial _____________ in full uniform escorted the president
• A _______-gun salute greeted President Doumerge
The Grounds
• Great Hall
• triumphant __________
• gilded statue of France,
depicting the country as
a colonial genius
• Visitors then followed
carefully planned routes
along
– Tunisian marketplaces,
– Moorish palaces, and
– mud-brick fortresses
THE GROUNDS
• The _____________housed
– countless items glorifying empire
– ___________ illustrating and glorifying
empire
• Native__________and French dignitaries
mingled before the opening address
• Multiple speakers emphasized the
symbolic importance of the Exhibition
A Reconstruction of the Cambodian
Temple of __________________
• high point of the Exhibition
• the Exhibition’s most popular
attraction
• Entry needed to be restricted to
_____________ to keep crowds
in control
• The floodlit façade of the temple dominated
the Exhibition’s night skyline
• symbolically demonstrate Lyautey’s need to
thrill people
Lyautey hoped to make empire familiar
through ___________ and __________
• The Exhibition also housed a
– zoo,
– a fairground,
– an aquarium
• Entertainment
– native musicians,
– snake charmers, and
– belly dancers
Attitudinal Goals
• The political elite sought to instill
___________________in the French people
• This superiority would bind the French
people together, preventing the social
divisions of the _____________________
from reoccurring
• The monthly magazine ________________
did a special edition on the Exhibition
The Exhibition’s events
• Countries which sent exhibits:
– Portugal,
– the United States,
– Belgium,
– Brazil,
– Italy,
– the Netherlands, and
– Denmark
SPEAKER:
• Prince
_________________
• Mussolini’s minister
of _________
• claimed that the
French Republic and
Fascist Italy shared a
common __________
endeavor
The
“__________________”
of the ________ race,
which, having now
reached every corner
of the world, has
transformed, or is in
the process of
transforming, _______
continents into
____________regions.’’
Lanzo Di Scalea’s French Counterpart:
• _______________________
• France’s minister of _______
• aim of Exhibition = to integrate
_______________into the
French consciousness
• The availability of overseas
domains for popular
consumption would widen
horizons beyond __________
• This new national
____________would be
inextricably tied to empire
INFORMATION, PLEASE!
• The Exhibition focused on _______________
– All aspects of colonial life had been painstakingly
documented and recorded
• Agricultural practices,
• economic opportunities, and
• tourism
• Colonial Exhibition
– focused on the empire’s contribution
to the French ___________machine
– 24,762 _______________troops
died in World War I
Tirailleurs Senegalais
A Huge Success
• Visitors reached the Exhibition via the specially
extended ___________________
• Roughly ______million people visited the Exhibition
• Measuring the response is difficult
– Some in attendance may have seen the pro-imperialist
propaganda as a nuisance
– The only opposition, however, was confined to
__________________ and ______________________
• Empire appears to have penetrated the public
consciousness because of the Exhibition
– Every French classroom had a map of the empire in pink in the 1920s and
1930s
POP CULTURE
• used the empire as a backdrop
– The novels of ________________and
– the songs of ___________featured
in the Exhibition
• Edith Piaf’s album, ___________________
– The films of
• Jean Renoir,
• Michel Bemheim, and
• Pierre Colombier
also tied themselves to the Exhibition
Colonial film took off following the
French Colonial Exhibition
Colonial film took off following the
French Colonial Exhibition
• The most famous film of this
genre was
– Film:__________________
– Directed by:
__________________
– Year: _______box office
success
– based on a _______ pulp
fiction novel
– Starring _____________
as sharp-suited gangster
Pépé
Pepe-le-Moko’s Plot
• Handsome and athletic Pépé ruled the __________underworld
– Pépé attempted to avoid the police by hiding in the ________
• Arab policeman _______________ served as Pépé’s adversary
– The Arab’s wily and oriental nature contrasts with Pépé
• Pépé’s superior understanding of French allows him to avoid
Slimane
• Over time, however, the smell and noise of the casbah takes a
_____________________ toll on Pépé
• Pépé becomes drunk and doles out
drunken abuse to a blind Arab beggar
• Another scene sees Pépé nostalgically
reminiscing about working-class Paris
• Pépé knows he will never see
___________ again
The Message of Pepe-le-Moko
• The contrast: the casbah represents nothing more
than____________and ______________
• At the end of the film, Pépé commits __________
• The pessimistic ending emphasized the
________________message of the film; the casbah represents
both _____________and_______within the French imagination
• Pépé’s fate serves as a warning that the casbah and the French
empire possesses a _____________
• _____________and _____________can easily overwhelm
outsiders
• Shots of Arab _______________ occur repeatedly throughout
the film…
The Facts Behind the Exhibition:
Historical Perspective
• The French Empire had NEVER ________________ expanded as
suggested
– Settlers, fortune hunters, and soldiers _________________ increased
the French Empire
– The central government rarely had control of its own citizens during this
period – 3 key factors motivating expansion:
• Military glory,
• economic exploitation, and
• religious crusading
all served as motivating factors for French imperialists
• In the early 1880s, France experienced internal hostility
– The ___________attacked colonialism as a burden on France
• This political party focused its attention on the recovery of ________________
• Germany annexed this region of France after the _____________________War
of _______-_________
– The Left criticized the Right’s policies as diverting
attention from the _______________ struggle
occurring in France at the time
World War I :a pivotal psychological
moment for France
• The imperial contribution to the war effort created a
bond between the colonies and the French home
country
– Colonies offered __________ and ____________to aid
France during the war
• Officials also believed that the war led to new mentalities
– The monopolistic attitude of France toward its
empire carried over into the
________and ________(decades)
– France ruthlessly exploited its
colonies for French war aims from
_______to________
An economic perspective
• Government policy, commercial interests, and
popular perceptions all influenced the new
French awareness of empire in the 1920s and
1930s
– The ______________ Ministry framed a general policy
– Exploitation of the colonies became more
• ruthless,
• coherent, and
• structured over these two decades
– The move from primary extraction to modern
extraction of iron and ___________________
represents one such change
France implemented
_______________on a grand scale
• The French applied harsh codes that
stipulated each adult male had to work a
certain number of days each year
– work = _____________________
– work in ___________ systems of rural production
= idling
• This inherent laziness was characteristic of native
populations
• Refusing waged work meant refusing
________________
– Thousands of Africans were forced into
makeshift ___________
• ________Africans in the ___________were
• used to erect the Abidjan-Ferkessedegou
railway line from ______ to ________
• ___________laborers from the Ivory Coast
were forced to do timber felling and
plantation work
Conditions
• Conditions for forced laborers were
degrading and crude
– 127,250 Africans were press-ganged into building the
equatorial railroad from _____________to__________
– from ______to________
– ___________of these laborers died from
• undernourishment
• disease
• French colonial companies enjoyed fantastic
___________under these forced labor schemes
– The prolonged absence of workers proved disastrous for
_____________ populations
• Local production completed collapsed in some regions
France liquidated local competition -enclosed empire within the French economy
• ______Senegalese were involved in export-import in
1900
– By 1930, ________Senegalese remained in the industry
– Shows how the French government aided metropolitan
commerce in penetrating the French colonies
• Trading monopolies naturally resulted from these
situations
– By 1939, _________of Senegalese exports went to the
French empire
– Colonial investment ______________ from 1930 to 1939
Land best represents French
intrusions into colonial society
• The French acquired land in
French Indochina
– 104,000 hectares in ___________
– 168,400 hectares in ___________
by 1930 leaving over _______the
local population landless
• Rich settlers also seized land in
Algeria
– The French held 1.6 million hectares
in ________
– By _____, this figure rose to 2.7
million hectares
– ______of the population thus
owned _____ of the land thought to
be profitably cultivable in Algeria
Tunisia and Morocco
• __________________agriculture became one of the most
efficient systems in the world
• Large landowners revolutionized agricultural practices
– These wealthy elites knew that France served as a
_____________ market
• Machinery used:
– Tractors,
– threshers, and
– disc-ploughs
• North Africa began exporting large amounts of
–
–
–
–
–
corn,
wheat,
peaches,
olive oil,
and WINE
ALGERIAN WINE
• Algeria rose to be the _________
most important global wine
producer
• Wine represented the French
genius that had cultivated the
__________________
• A myth persisted in France that
North Africa had been
________________________
space prior to French colonization
• PROBLEMS NORTH AFRICANS:
– ___________ found vineyards
deeply religiously offensive
– Vineyards took away food
_______________ for local
consumption
Vineyards took away food resources
for local consumption
• Local agriculture already could not keep pace with the
growing Algerian population
– The population ______________ between 1856 and 1940
– By 1940, the figure reached _______million
– The introduction of French medicine reduced
______________________, causing the large population increase
• Algerians desperately needed as much agricultural land as
they could get
– Only_____of Algerians owned a farm of more than 100 hectares
at this point in time
– Many Algerians survived on a diet of
• couscous,
• wild artichokes, and
• mallow stems
Colonial opposition
• The ________________weighed down the French Empire
• Indigenous populations suffered even worse under the
French government’s ruthless protection of
___________interests
– Social divisions came down along ___________lines,
exacerbating inequality
• In North Africa, a large _______exodus to major ________
cities led to the construction of miles of ______________
– This countryside flight resulted in the ______ FAMINE
– North Africans termed this event the terrible year of hunger
• Locals dropped dead on the side of the road from starvation
• limited relief measures
– Most attempted to send the dead back to their hometowns in
lorry-loads
French journalist: ______________
• Tried to shake French settlers
out of their indifference to the
poor ___________________
• graphic description of the
starvation in the Algerian
_____________Mountains
– Children fought with dogs for
garbage
– Algerians had bodies in which
muscles were wasting away
– Infant mortality skyrocketed as
high as ________
– Half the population survived on
grass and roots
OPEN REBELLION
• Opposition soon transitioned into open rebellion
– The French government savagely quashed rebellions in
• _______________(1925),
• _______________(1926),
• _______________(1930)
– Disaffection continued through the 1930s
• Social divisions continued to widen as ____________________failed
• Colonial propaganda of a fraternal, generous Republic did
not accurately represent the French Empire
– Substantial _______and______barriers to assimilation remained
– Only a handful of citizens of the French Empire obtained
______________________
• The 1936 election of the leftist __________________
– ushered in hopes of a change in the colonies;
– however, it soon fell apart
France’s Affinity for North Africa
• NOT shared by COLONISTS
• France had absorbed
– Algeria in _________
– annexed Tunisia a protectorate in_________
– Morocco followed the same path as Tunisia in _________
• The ______________of Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco to France produced
the strongest ties of Loyalty
– Settlers also established a large presence in these three colonies
• A ____ Popular Front bill in Algeria offered citizenship to _______Muslims
– At the time, the Muslim population numbered ____________
– Demonstrations for reform ensued
• Settlers sabotaged these small-scale concessions
– A new atmosphere of violence and tension emerged
• The _______________________was banned from Algeria in _______
– This nationalist party’s ban sparked a series of _____________________
on settler farms
• Settlers responded with force
– Nationalists perceived attacks as a rebellion against those who had taken their land
Opposition Spread to Morocco
• PROPAGANDA vs. REALITY
– Propaganda: idyllic cooperation between the French and Moroccans
– Reality: conflict
• Colonial authorities declared the _________courts of appeal
and tribunals beyond __________courts’ jurisdiction in 1930
– Nationalists within the ________________Committee considered
this action an attack on their identity
– The 1930 decrees undermined Islam through the creation of a false
divide between Arab and Berber
• Moroccans began demanding _______________________
–
–
–
–
Social agitation fueled these calls for political action
Moroccan exports fell by _______between 1929 and 1936
Rural incomes fell by ____during this same period
Demands from political elite found plenty of public support
Tunisian opposition
• Primarily________________
• The________________
– __________________________________party
– began pressing for moderate reform
by___________
– called for the election of a ________________
– ultimately sought Tunisian
______________________
Tunisian opposition
• The ________________ party emerged in
1934
– young lawyer _______________________
headed the party
• militant opposition
– Refused_____________________
– _____________________________
• Strikes occurred in Tunis in__________as a
protest against the French government
French Response Follows Pattern
• These settlers saw colonial opposition as foreign
powers manipulating a minority of colonial subjects
– Germany,
– Italy, and
– Russia
were all targets of this supposed
foreign power manipulation
• The French
– arrested Bourguiba
– outlawed the Neo-Destour
• The ___________________________________
was also dissolved
The importance of empire
• French ______________in crushing North African
revolts demonstrates importance of empire by the
late 1930s
• France felt increasingly __________________ from
the international scene
• The empire served as a
– political,
– economic, and
– emotional
….source of hope
The PRESSURE of EMPIRE
• November 30, 1938: _____________ parliament
called for the annexation of ____________
– _____________demonstrators carried their exhibition of
the news onto Roman streets
– The French press quickly instigated a _________________
TUNISIA campaign
• Prime Minister _____________________gave numerous speeches
and radio addresses in ______________and____________
» Daladier tried to stiffen French national resolve by reminding the
French people that they were NOT ALONE!
» The entire French_____________would save France
• France could rely on the ______ million people of the empire
• France itself had only______ million people
FRENCH HUMILIATION
• Stirring nationalist resolve did not
successfully prevent the coming catastrophe
– The Germans defeated the French in six weeks,
from _______ to ______ of _____
• The French endured ______years of German
occupation and national humiliation
• France lost its status as a great power during
_____________________
The legacy of empire
• Empire became truly important to the French
people as _________________ movements in the
colonies came into being
• The Colonial Exhibition is nothing more than a
________________of the French Empire
– The event gave the impression of an enduring and
permanent political entity
– In fact, the political and social forces that ended
colonialism in the 1950s and 1960s had already been
defined
2.13 EXCLUSIONS (pp. 49-52)
One of these things is not like the others.
•
•
•
•
•
Economic exploitation
Religious crusade
Military glory
Central Government Initiative
All are motivations for 19th century French
colonization
2.13 EXCLUSIONS (pp. 49-52)
One of these things is not like the others.
•
•
•
•
•
To excite the popular imagination
To stress the economic importance of
empire
To make empire seem exotic and intangible
To project France’s mission to civilize the nonEuropean world
• Others were Lyantey’s goals with the Colonial
Exhibition
2.13 EXCLUSIONS (pp. 49-52)
One of these things is not like the others.
•
•
•
•
aquarium
zoo
fairground
circus
• Others were found within the Colonial
Exhibition.
2.13 EXCLUSIONS (pp. 49-52)
One of these things is not like the others.
•
•
•
•
•
postcards
photos
prints
film
monthly magazine
• Others were ways in which the exhibition
was publicized via new media techniques
2.13 EXCLUSIONS (pp. 49-52)
One of these things is not like the others.
•
•
•
•
novels of Pierre Loti
songs of Edith Piaf
films of Jean Renoir
posters of Pierre Colombier
• Others are art and media that used empire as
their backdrop
2.13 EXCLUSIONS (pp. 49-52)
One of these things is not like the others.
•
•
•
•
Pepe
Slimane
Paulo
a blind Arab beggar
• Others are characters in Juilan Duvivier’s
Pepe-le-Moko
2.14 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp. 49-52)
Just the facts, please.
• 1.
• 2.
• 3.
• 4.
• 5
• 6.
• 7.
• 8.
2.15 FILL IN THE BLANK (p. 52)
• Juilan Duvivier’s Pepe-le-Moko is the epitome of the
_______________________ of
_______________________ film. When it was
released in _______________________, the film
was a big _______________________ success.
2.15 FILL IN THE BLANK (p. 52)
• The film is based on a ___________________ book.
• Jean ______________________ portrays a gangster,
Pepe, “an athletic and handsome” man who is
“_______________________ of the Algiers
_______________________ underworld”. His nemesis,
_______________________, is an Arab Policeman.
2.15 FILL IN THE BLANK (p. 52)
• Pepe is able to evade Slimane until he becomes
psychologically _______________________ by the noise
and smell of the casbah; even to the point that he
verbally abuses a blind Arab _______________________.
Pepe longs for the peace and quiet of the working-class
world in _______________________ he once knew.
2.15 FILL IN THE BLANK (p. 52)
• The movie illustrates how the French were fascinated
with but also afraid of the casbah. The
_______________________ is clear—the casbah—and
the empire too—are places of sexual passion and
_______________________ and as thus are
_______________________, powerful entities where
_______________________ do not belong.
Many workers die from disease
and malnourishment.
Prolonged absence of workers
meant the collapse of local
production.
Greater agricultural efficiency led
to surplus of exports of wheat,
corn, peaches, olive oil, and wine
Led to a dramatic rise in population
that local agriculture couldn’t
keep up with
Most Algerians had little or no
land, and hunger became
commonplace.
Social division and inequalities
were intensified.
All were savagely repressed.
ORDERING
•
•
•
•
•
1
2
6
7
3
-
1881
1912
1936
1937
1920
• 5 - 1934
• 4 - 1926
• 8 - 1938-39
•
•
•
•
•
France annexes Tunisia
France annexes Morocco
Election of the left-wing Popular Front
Great famine in North Africa
The liberal constitution party in Tunisia,
the Destour, begins to press for reform
• The more radical Neo-Destour party
arises in Tunisia
• Open rebellion against French colonial
rule arises in Syria
• French prime minister gives speeches
and radio addresses about the
importance of France’s imperial
holdings
STOP

SQ Sec II Part 4 - Madison Central High