ISSUE 3 GERMANY
AN EVALUATION OF THE OBSTACLES TO GERMAN
UNIFICATION, 1815–50
OVERVIEW ISSUES1-3
• GERMANY- SEPARATE
• NAPOLEON- 400 STATES- 39 (CONFEDERATION OF THE
RHINE)
• NAPOLEON GONE- BUND
• AUSTRIA- ANTRI NATIONALIST
• PRUSSIA- POWERFUL FREDRICK WILHELM(FR)
• 1848 REVOLUTION- DESIRE FOR CHANGE. RESULT
FRANKFURT PARLIAMENT, FR TO LEAD- DISPUTES. CRUMBLE.
OLD PRINCES RETURN TO POWER.
• ERFURT UNION- FR TRIES TO HEAD UP A UNITED GERMANY.
AUSTRIA SAYS NO, FR BACKS DOWN AT THE TREATY OF
OLMUTZ.
FACTORS
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Divisions among the nationalists;
Austrian strength;
German princes;
religious differences;
economic differences;
indifference of the masses;
resentment towards Prussia.
Other countries
MOST OF THESE SHOULD ALREADY BE FAMILIAR
DIVISIONS AMONG THE
NATIONALISTS
(V IMPORTANT)
INTERNAL OBSTACLES TO GERMAN
NATIONALISM
• 3 Divisions within Nationalists
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Gross or Klein Deutschland?
Monarchy or Republic?
Who would be the monarch?
How would they create a Republic ? Who could vote?
What would be in the constitution?
All these issues had to be agreed on and caused argument
and indecision
THE 1848 REVOLUTION
Why did political nationalism fail to unite Germany in
1848/49?
• Revolutions relatively ineffective – no sweeping changes made
• Monarchs not overthrown
• Armies remained loyal to monarchs – especially in Prussia
• Reforms granted by monarchs were easily reversed.
• FW IV refused the crown of united Germany.
• KleinD decision disgruntled Austria
• Frankfurt Assembly took too long to make decisions about
issues they disagreed on.
• Lack of clarity, purpose and strong leadership among
nationalists and liberals
• Lack of power from below to unify.
TASK
• Make a mind map of all the things the Nationalists were
divided on.
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Gross or Klein Deutschland?
Monarchy or Republic?
Who would be the monarch?
How would they create a Republic ? Who could vote?
What would be in the constitution?
• Importance- This is a big obstacle, if the Nationalists are
not united then even without the other obstacles they
would struggle to unite the people.
• EVIDENCE IS 1848 REVOLUTION
AUSTRIAN STRENGTH
(V IMPORTANT!)
EXTERNAL OBSTACLES TO GERMAN
NATIONALISM
1. Austrian opposition/Prince Metternich
If Kleindeutschland created Austria feared Prussia would
become a rival power in the north.
If Grossdeutschland created, Austria feared it would get
drawn into German affairs with no benefits
Metternich (Austrian Chancellor) was very conservative, anti
nationalist, anti unification because the threat these
posed to the unity of the Austrian empire whose wealth
and power lay with the Hapsburgs, Metternich’s
employer!
AUSTRIAN OPPOSITION
• Prince Metternich (The Austrian
Minister of Foreign Affairs) was
strongly opposed to German
nationalism and was personally
an major obstacle to the
unification of Germany, as
Austria was one of the leading
German states and Austria held
the Presidency of the Bund.
• Metternich was a conservative
and therefore strongly opposed to
liberal ideas. Most German
nationalists at this time were
also liberals.
• QUOTE‘We will not let our
power slip in Germany. A strong
united Germany would not be
so easy to control. It is in our
interests to keep the identity of
Germany divided.’ (Metternich,
185)
•
• Metternich regarded the demands for
nationalism and liberalism as ‘dark, evil
forces’. He regarded the university
students as a potential danger, as they
moved around and could spread these
ideas which many of them supported.
•
• Therefore he passed the Carlsbad
Decrees in 1819 which :
• Abolished student societies and unions
• Censored newspapers
• Prevented students expelled from one
university from going to another, And in
1832, the Six Articles which permitted
intervention in states threatened with
constitutional demands. Note the power
and influence of Austria (and Metternich)
in affairs at this time.
• * Carlsbad as evidence*
AUSTRIAN OPPOSITION (CONTD.)
• The Austrians were keen to keep a ‘lid’ on
nationalist sentiment in the German states,
as, if it was left unchecked, nationalism could
lead to the disintegration of Austria’s vast
empire in south-east Europe.
• If a Kleindeutschland was created, Austria
would be excluded from German affairs.
• It was, therefore, very much in Austrian
interests to maintain the status-quo (i.e. the
Bund).
REPRESSIVE MEASURES
• Metternich’s work to repress liberalism and
nationalism – Carlsbad Decrees + Six Acts
• McKichan - The Carlsbad Decrees certainly
succeeded in keeping Germany quiet for a
considerable period of time
• Treaty of Olmutz 1850 – re-established the Bund –
huge disappointment for the liberals and nationalists
AUSTRIA AS AN OBSTACLE
• Nationalism a threat to multi ethnic empire of Austria –
therefore Austria determined to curb nationalism
• Violently anti-nationalist
• Chairmanship of the Bund given permanently to Austria
• Aim of confederation to divide and keep states
independent – Article 2
• Mitchell - The Bund was more a means to perpetuate
the division of Germany (than to unite it)
• Carr – He (Metternich) had no doubt that demands
for freedom would inevitably lead to the destruction
of the Austrian Habsburg Empire
SUMMARY
YOU WOULD MENTION:
• Why Austria Hated Nationalism
• Carlsbad Decrees (Evidence)
• Olmutz (Evidence)
• VERY IMPORTANT AS THIS HELPED PREVENT
REVOLUTION FROM BELOW (1848) AND REVOLUTION
FROM ABOVE (OLMUTZ)
EXAMPLE INFO
• Nationalism and liberalism were two political philosophies that usually went hand-in-hand
at this time. The arch-conservative Austrian Chancellor Prince Metternich was very much
aware of the dangers of such philosophies. Nationalism, if allowed to spread
unchecked, could potentially lead to the disintegration of the vast Austro-Hungarian
Empire. He was also keen to ensure that Austria would not be excluded from German
affairs by the creation of some sort of Kleindeutschland. There are several clear instances
of Austrian opposition to German nationalism; the two most important coming in 1819
and 1850.
• In 1819 the Austrians passed the notorious Carlsbad Decrees which effectively suppressed
the student Burschenscaften which had been flourishing in German universities since the
end of the Napoleonic Wars. These nationalist organisations had been responsible for
nothing more serious than a few demonstrations and the burning of an effigy of
Metternich at Wartburg in 1817. However, Metternich recognised the spirit of these
organisations and was quick to deal with it when given the excuse in 1819 when the
member of one of the Burschenshaften murdered the anti-liberal writer and Tsarist agent
Kotzebue. The Carsbad Decrees, as F. McKichan stated effectively suppressed German
nationalism ‘for a generation’.
• In 1850, after recovering from the revolutions of 1848-49 the new Austrian Chancellor
Scwartzernburg forced the Prussians to accept the ‘humiliation’ of the Treaty of Olmutz.
This meant that the Efrurt Union – a Prussian-led attempt to replace the Bund and unite
the German states on the terms of their rulers was abandoned. Thus it is clear that while
Austria remained strong the prospects for the unification of the German states were slim.
Before 1850 opposition from Austria was definitely the main stumbling block for German
nationalists in their attempts to unite the German states.
GERMAN PRINCES
INTERNAL OBSTACLES TO GERMAN
NATIONALISM
• 1. Various Rulers
• The influence of the privileged members of the ruling
classes in the German states. (the “ancien regime”)
• The aristocrats who ruled the 39 German states had to
defend the system to ensure their own survival. Each state
had sovereign powers over its laws, taxes and armed forces.
THE OTHER INDIVIDUAL
STATES
• Austria influenced the other states - the leaders of each state
were encouraged to keep the status quo and obstructed unity
• Leaders protective of their individual powers
Article 2 of the Act of Confederation - 'The aim of this
confederation shall be the maintenance of the external and
internal security of Germany as well as the independence of
the individual German states‘
McKichan - The way in which the confederation worked was
designed to make it difficult for it to develop into a united
Germany
McKichan – To keep the dark forces of nationalism at bay,
Metternich relied on the prestige of Austria and the goodwill
and co-operation of the German princes
SQA
• The leaders of the German states obstructed
unification – protective of their individual power
and position. They wanted to maintain the status
quo which would safeguard this for them.
• • Particularism of the various German states –
autonomous and parochial in many ways.
• • Self-interest among German rulers led to
opposition to the actions at Frankfurt.
• *EVIDNCE*- Getting rid of Frankfurt Parliament
IMPORTANCE
• Important as stopped revolution from above
• BUT even if they HAD helped this would have been
shot down by Austria e.g Olmutz.
RELIGIOUS
DIFFERENCES
NOT VERY IMPORTANT
INTERNAL OBSTACLES TO GERMAN
NATIONALISM
• 2. Religious differences
• Protestant Prussia and North German States
• Catholic South German States and much of Austria
against
• Religious Divisions – the states divided between north
and south on religious grounds. Northern states
Protestant > looked to Prussia for help, Southern
states Catholic > looked to Austria for help. A divisive
force
EXAMPLE PARAGRAPH/
• The loyalty of the Protestant northern German states
historically was to Protestant Prussia and the loyalty of the
Catholic southern German states was to Catholic Austria.
Thus, it was more than just religion that divided the German
states. The tension and rivalry that existed between the two
largest German states exacerbated the existing religious
divisions and made the possibility of unification more
problematic.
• An indication of how strong the traditional cultural and
religious ties between the southern Catholic states and Austria
were came in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War. Before 1850,
however, whilst the religious division in the German states was
clearly an obstacle to any future unification, there were other
far more important factors – not least of all being the
opposition of Austria to any form of unification.
IMPORTANCE
• NOT VERY- Couldn’t unite or dissuade Germany.
Before 1850, however, whilst the religious division in
the German states was clearly an obstacle to any
future unification, there were other far more
important factors – not least of all being the
opposition of Austria to any form of unification.
ECONOMIC
DIFFERENCES;
MIDDLING IMPORTANCE
ECONOMIC FACTORS
• FROM 2014 past paper mark scheme
• The smaller states of the West had more advanced
economies than the Prussian heartlands, where political
reading was confined largely to the upper class.
• • Even within Prussia there were significant social
differences between the industrially advanced territories
on the Rhine and the largely agricultural areas in the
East, which were dominated by the Junkers (although
less so than in the 18th century), who were adversely
affected by the agricultural depression of the 1820s.
• PUT THIS INTO YOUR OWN WORDS!
IMPORTANCE
• Not as important as other factors,
• Even if this hadn't divided them Austria still would
have, as would have the other Nationalist divisions.
INDIFFERENCE OF THE
MASSES;
QUITE IMPORTANT
INTERNAL OBSTACLES TO GERMAN
NATIONALISM
• Limited appeal of the nationalists
Despite the economic and social changes
between 1815 and 1862 Germany remained an
area where local loyalties remained important
for a mainly rural population.
Nationalism only appealed to literate people –
the growing urban middle classes-”talkers and
dreamers with no real plan of action”
(McKichan)
The peasants and the new urban working
classes were not educated enough to see any
advantages for them in nationalism.
LIMITED APPEAL OF NATIONALISM
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A middle class movement with little interest from the w/c
Many people had other priorities
Most Germans had little desire to see a united Germany
No consensus among the nationalists on defining Germany – Klein v
Gross
Lack of clear aims and no united army
Lack of clear leadership
Revolutionaries in 1848 at odd with each other – the workers and
the employers
McKichan – Most historians agree that these ideas were held
by relatively limited numbers of educated town dwellers
Stiles “Liberalism and nationalism remained largely middleclass before 1848”
McKichan “ the events of 1848 and 1850 seemed to show that
German nationalism was too weak and divided to ahchieve its
aims by pressure from below”.
IMPORTANCE
• Important as stopped w/class getting involved so
stopped revolution from below (the potential power
of which could be seen in 1848 Rev)
• HOWEVER EVEN if this had existed Austria would
shoot down any attempt at Nationalism AND The
Divisions of Nationalists would lead to failure. i.e
Frankfurt Parliament
RESENTMENT TOWARDS
PRUSSIA
QUITE IMPORTANT
INTERNAL OBSTACLES TO GERMAN
NATIONALISM
• Fear of Prussian domination and military
• Largest state of German states.
• Becoming more industrial, and rebuilding military strength
after French occupation.
• A dominant political voice in the Bund. Wants to extend its
own power, not really interested in unification, rather
‘prussification’.
OTHER COUNTRIES
OTHER EUROPEAN POWERS
• Other European powers opposed a united
Germany and the growth of nationalism
• France, Russia and Britain all feared unity and
the prospect of a strong opponent
• The German states had proved weak when
they were divided – that suited others
EXTERNAL OBSTACLES TO GERMAN
NATIONALISM
2. Opposition from other countries
French opposed a united Germany because it
could be a new European power on her border
which could expand west.
Russia also opposed for same reason as France but
for expansion east.
Either way it could upset the balance of power
SUMMARY
SUMMARY Q’S- OBSTACLES TO
UNIFICATION
Turn to p. 102 (BLUE). Answer these questions in your
own words. p.2 (Gold) and (Gold) p.23-29
1. What does Mitchell’s quote mean?
2. Why does Mitchel think this? Read the
paragraph on p.102 and p.103 to help you.
3. Read p.103 Who did the Catholic states look to
for protection?
4. Explain Kleinedeuschland and grossdeutschland
in your own words.
5. P.104 (blue)Which 3 countries did not want a
united Germany?
6. P.105(blue) Why was France against a united
Germany
SUMMARY OF OBSTACLES TO UNITY
Six Acts, 1832
Reinforced the
Carlsbad Decrees,
gave more powers to
individual states to
crush nationalism
France, Britain and
Russia against
unity – a united
Germany would be
a security threat
and also a strong
economic
competitor
Austria and
Metternich –
violently anti
nationalist stance,
Austrian empire felt
threatened by unity
Carlsbad Decrees 1819
Newspaper censored,
student societies banned,
inspectors into universities,
professors sacked
Repressive
Measures
Obstacles to Unity
1815-50
Dividing
forces
Religious divisions between
north and south
Article 2 of the
Confederation
stated that it’s aim
was to keep the
states separate
The Bund /
Confederation
The 39
leaders were
against unity
Ant-nationalist Austria at
the helm of the bund
ensured unity was
repressed
BY 1850, GERMANY WAS STILL NOT UNIFIED
FORCES REPRESSING UNITY- CHECKLIST
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The Confederation / Bund
The 39 leaders
Austria + Metternich
Carlsbad Decrees 1819/ Six Acts 1832
Religious Divisions – North + South
Other European powers
No consensus on defining Germany – Klein v Gross
IMPORTANCE.
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Divisions among the nationalists;
Austrian strength;
German princes;
religious differences;
economic differences;
indifference of the masses;
resentment towards Prussia.
Other countries
• Put these factors in order of importance and ensure you
have reasons for your choice.
ARGUMENT
• Austrian strength
Carr – He (Metternich) had no doubt that demands for freedom would inevitably lead to the
destruction of the Austrian Habsburg Empire
1848 revolution was only possible due to Austria’s engagement in her Empire’s affairs. This shows
how big an obstacle she is, but also that she is not a constant
• Repressive Measures
Not as important as it was only the liberals and intellectuals it affected.
McKichan - The Carlsbad Decrees certainly succeeded in keeping Germany quiet for a
considerable period of time.
• Individual states (German princes and religious differences)
McKichan – To keep the dark forces of nationalism at bay, Metternich relied on the prestige of
Austria and the goodwill and co-operation of the German princes
Gorman- The rulers of the separate states of the confederation did not want to surrender their
powers to a higher authority. Consequently the small, but growing, middle class made little
headway
• European powers
Less important despite these issues it was the fact that Germany herself was not united in her
aims rather than others stopping her that prevented unification.
Gorman- it suited the purpose of the Great Powers to keep Germany divided.
• Weakness of Nationalism Important- Without a widespread movement there was not support
to attack the other obstacles.
1848 shows that no matter how strong other factors were without AN ORGANISED Nationalist
campaign nationalism WOULD NOT HAPPEN.
McKichan – Most historians agree that these ideas were held by relatively limited numbers of
educated town dwellers
Stiles “Liberalism and nationalism remained largely middle-class before 1848”
Carr-the diverse personalities of liberal leaders hindered the growth of a unified movement
IMPORTANCE
• Austrian strength MOST IMPORTANT- WOULD CRUSH REVOLUTION FROM
ABOVE OR BELOW (1848 REV/OLMUTZ).
• Divisions among the nationalists- it meant that no matter how many attempts
there were at unity the Nationalists would always fail if they did not fix this e.g
Frankfurt Parliament
• Indifference of the masses- Prevented Nationalism from below an prevented
a pressure which would have helped change those in power’s minds.
• German Princes- Prevented a Revolution from above however most were not
powerful enough alone to enact this and the one attempt at this (Erfurt) was
crushed by Austria.
• Resentment towards Prussia- would affect chances of both a revolution from
above or below (remember not all the states joined the Erfurt Union) however
not enough to make a major change e.g the 1848 Rev had happened
despite this
• Economic Differences- Not that important if the other obstacles were not
there these could have been overcome
• religious differences; Not that important, if the other obstacles were not there
these could have been overcome.
• Other countries- Not that important, Britain France etc did not seem likely to
do anything about it so who cared if they didn’t like it!!!!
EXAMPLE INTRODUCTIONS
• Nationalism is the desire of a people with a common language, culture and
traditions to be united in their own state with their own ruler. Between 1815, the
year the Napoleonic Wars ended, and 1850 the German states experienced a
growth of nationalism and desire for unity. However, by 1850 the German states
were still not united., despite two attempts at doing so in 1848 and 1849.
Historians have since debated what the obstacles to unification were. Some
argue that the religious divisions in Germany were the main obstacle to
unification. Others suggest that the opposition from Austria was more important,
or that the individual rulers’ fear of losing power played a vital part. This essay
will establish that, while religious division was an important factor, the opposition
from Austria and the rulers were more important.
• Between1815 and 1850 there had been two real attempts to unify Germany,
however, both of these failed. Germany was still composed of 39 states as it
had been in 1815. Although nationalism had grown, it was not successful by
1850. Religious divisions between the German states were one of the many
obstacles to German unification, however they were certainly not the most
important. Austrian opposition was the largest obstacle to German unification,
closely followed by divisions amongst nationalists. Other reasons included the
lack of a wide support base, economic divisions and opposition from rulers of
states.
FACTORS
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Divisions among the nationalists;
Austrian strength;
German princes;
religious differences;
economic differences;
indifference of the masses;
resentment towards Prussia.
Other countries
• On the next slides are examples of how you could group
them together for an essay THOUGH YOU ARE ALSO FREE
TO KEEP THEM SEPARATE.
EXAMPLE ESSAY PLAN
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND TO NATIONALISM
1. German states and Prussia
2. Opposition from Leaders
3. Austrian strength
4. Weakness of nationalism
5. Attitude of foreign states
CONLUSION
FACTORS GROUPED TOGETHER
• GERMANYS INTERNAL DIVISIONS (religious
differences/resentment towards Prussia/ economic
differences
• WEAKNESS OF NATIONALISM (Divisions among the
nationalists/indifference of the masses)
• LACK OF SUPPORT FROM LEADERS(German
princes/Other countries)
• AUSTRIAN STRENGTH
WHY DID NATIONALISM FAIL TO UNITE THE GERMAN STATES
BEFORE 1850/ WHAT WERE THE OBSTACLES TO GERMAN UNIFICATION
BEFORE 1850
DO THE named FACTOR FIRST.
WEIGH UP THE FACTORS AS YOU GO ALONG – DON’T WAIT TILL THE CONLUSION TO COMPARE THE FACTORS TO EACH OTHER IN TERMS OF THEIR IMPORTANCE.
1. Intro – SEAF
start date – 1815, end of Napoleonic war/creation of Deutscher Bund, end date – 1850, still no united German state, Germany failed to unify for several
reasons …… (Put them in an explained LIST)
REST OF THE MAIN PART IS MADE UP OF ALL THE OBSTACLES TO GERMAN UNIFICATION. MOST OF THESE PARAGRAPHS WILL BE SHORT.
THE MOST IMPORTANT ONES ARE MARKED WITH A *. DO NOT MISS THESE ONES OUT!
2. German Princes/Rulers of German states
Opposed to unification as would lose influence/power
Particularism – loyalty to individual states
3. Religious divisions
Protestant north/Catholic south
4. Nationalism limited to middle-classes and intellectuals
Use Burschenschaften Wartburg/Hambach as an example.
5. Economic divisions
Despite the Zollverein German states still economically diverse and divided.
6. Resentment of Prussia
Resentment of Protestant Prussia from Catholic southern states loyal to Catholic Austria, Resentment of growing Prussian economic strength and later military
strength.
*7. Divisions amongst the nationalists
Kleindeutschland/Grossdeutschland, monarchy/republic, democracy?
Nationalists themselves couldn’t agree on what a united Germany should be like.
Use failure of Frankfurt as an example of this.
*8. Austrian Opposition
Why Austrians (and Metternich especially) happy to keep states divided. Conservatives like Metternich scared of nationalism ad went hand in hand with
liberalism.
Use Carlsbad Decrees and Olmutz as examples of when Austrian opposition quashed nationalism.
9. Conclusion
Which factor/s was/were most important and why?
WEIGH UP the factors one by one – finish with the one that you think was most important. Include a good quote if you can.
•
HISTORIOGRAPHY
Every essay needs some historiography –
use of quotes which are explained and back
up the points you mention
(hand out of historians and example essay also
available)
HISTORIOGRAPHY
Mitchell - The Bund was more a means to perpetuate the division of
Germany (than to unite it)
Article 2 of the Act of Confederation - 'The aim of this confederation
shall be the maintenance of the external and internal security of
Germany as well as the independence of the individual German states‘
McKichan - The way in which the confederation worked was designed to
make it difficult for it to develop into a united Germany
Carr – He (Metternich) had no doubt that demands for freedom would
inevitably lead to the destruction of the Austrian Habsburg Empire
Carr-the diverse personalities of liberal leaders hindered the growth of a
unified movement
Carr- Under Metternich Press censorship and a secret police repressed what
interest there was in political change.
HISTORIOGRAPHY
McKichan - The Carlsbad Decrees certainly succeeded in keeping Germany
quiet for a considerable period of time
McKichan – To keep the dark forces of nationalism at bay, Metternich
relied on the prestige of Austria and the goodwill and co-operation of
the German princes
McKichan – Most historians agree that these ideas were held by relatively
limited numbers of educated town dwellers
Gorman- it suited the purpose of the Great Powers to keep Germany
divided.
Gorman- The rulers of the separate states of the confederation did not
want to surrender their powers to a higher authority. Consequently the
small, but growing, middle class made little headway
USE 2014 MARK SCHEME TO WRITE
PLAN
To what extent was resentment towards Prussia
among the German states the main obstacle to
German unification by 1850?
OR
Austrian strength was the greatest obstacle to German
nationalism between 1815 – 1850. How accurate is this view?
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The candidate evaluates the validity of the view that the German princes were the most important obstacle to German unification before 1850, using evidence and
arguments such as:
Attitude of the German princes
• The leaders of the German states obstructed unification – protective of their individual power and position. They wanted to maintain the status quo which would
safeguard this for them.
• Particularism of the various German states – autonomous and parochial in many ways.
• Self-interest among German rulers led to opposition to the actions at Frankfurt.
Other factors
Divisions among the nationalists
• Nationalists were divided over which territory should be included in any united Germany; grossdeutsch and kleindeutsch arguments.
• Failure of the Frankfurt Parliament – lack of clear aims and without an armed force to enforce its decisions. Lack of decisive leadership. Divisions among the
‘revolutionaries’ regarding aims and objectives.
Austrian strength
• The states within ‘Germany’ had been part of the moribund Holy Roman Empire, traditionally ruled by the Emperor of Austria.
• Post-1815 the chairmanship of the Bund was given to Austria on a permanent basis, partly as she was considered to be the major German power.
• Metternich’s work – to oppose liberalism and nationalism. His use of the weapons of diplomacy and threats of force. Use of the police state, repression and press
censorship. Smaller German states were in awe of the power and position of the Austrian Empire. Austrian control over the administration and management of the empire,
stamping authority on the Bund. Karlsbad Decrees and the Six Articles.
• Post-1815 Austrian military strength and bureaucracy continued to decline in effectiveness; shift in balance of power between Austria and Prussia, but not apparent till
the 1850s.
• Treaty of Olmutz, 1850 – signalled the triumph of Austria and humiliation of Prussia. German nationalism was now a spent force apparently.
Religious differences
• Religion – northern German states were mostly Protestant and southern states mainly Catholic; thus the north looked to Prussia for help and protection while the south
looked to Austria.
Economic differences
• The smaller states of the West had more advanced economies than the Prussian heartlands, where political reading was confined largely to the upper class.
• Even within Prussia there were significant social differences between the industrially advanced territories on the Rhine and the largely agricultural areas in the East,
which were dominated by the Junkers (although less so than in the 18th century), who were adversely affected by the agricultural depression of the 1820s.
Indifference of the masses
• Popular apathy – most Germans had little desire to see a united Germany; nationalism affected mainly the educated / business classes.
• Lack of coincidence between political boundaries and ethnic / linguistic ones.
• However, politically based literature and propaganda also reached the masses, helping to bond their ideals and strengthen their resolve for both reform and
unification.
Resentment towards Prussia
• Smaller states, particularly in the south, resented the economic and political predominance of Prussia.
• There was a reluctance to accept unification within the Prussian state, which had a significant non-German population and which contained a large conservative/
reactionary landed class.
Attitudes of other foreign states
• France had been able to dominate central Europe for centuries due to its lack of unity. Although most of Germany had been united by Napoleon into the
Confederation of the Rhine, it was not in French interests for Germany to be united, particularly as that would present a barrier to France achieving a frontier on the Rhine.
ISSUES 1-3
We have studied Issues 1-3 so far and all essays are either Issue
1, 2 or 3
You need to be able to identify which issue an essay is so you know
how to answer it
Issue 1
Issue 2
Issue 3
EXAMPLE ESSAYS
• To what extent was there a growth of nationalism between 1815 –
1850?
• ‘By 1850 the German nationalists had made significant progress in
their aims’. How valid is this view?
• How important were cultural factors in the growth of a German
national consciousness between 1815 – 1850?
• Austrian strength was the greatest obstacle to German nationalism
between 1815 – 1850. How accurate is this view?
• How important were economic factors in the growth of nationalism
between 1815-50?
• How important were the other European powers as an obstacle to
unity?
EXAMPLE ESSAYS
To what extent was there a growth of nationalism between 1815 –
1850?
Issue 2
‘By 1850 the German nationalists had made significant progress in
their aims’. How valid is this view?
Issue 2
How important were cultural factors in the growth of a German
national consciousness between 1815 – 1850? Issue 1
Austrian strength was the greatest obstacle to German nationalism
between 1815 – 1850. How accurate is this view? Issue 3
How important were economic factors in the growth of nationalism
between 1815-50? Issue 1
How important were the other European powers as an obstacle to
unity?
Issue 3

Issue 3 Germany