RELATIONSHIPS WITH
AUSTRALIAN OUTDOOR
ENVIRONMENTS AS
INFLUENCED BY:
INDUSTRIALISATION
INDUSTRIALISATION
Definition:
Industrialisation is the process of social and economic
change that transforms a human group from an agrarian
(farming) society into an industrial one.
It is a part of a wider modernisation process, where social
change and economic development are closely related with
technological innovation, particularly with the development
of large-scale energy and metallurgy production.
It is the extensive organisation of an economy for the
purpose of manufacturing.
INDUSTRIALISATION
Industrialisation looks into the
period of time around the late
1800’s through to the early 1900’s.
What examples within Australia can
you think of that might fit into this
description of Industrialisation?
INDUSTRIALISATION
Geelong waterfront – early 1900’s
INDUSTRIALISATION
Mass production of products such as beer and biscuits
INDUSTRIALISATION
Brick makers
INDUSTRIALISATION
The first Australian factories were based on
the waterfront;
 repairing visiting vessels
 brewing beer
 making biscuits.
The early industrialisation of the late 19th
century led to an expansion into the fringe
suburbs of the main coastal settlements,
creating thousands of new jobs for
boilermakers, engineers, iron founders and
brick makers.
INDUSTRIALISATION
 Within the manufacturing sector employment rose from
190,000 in 1903 to 328,000 in 1913.
 By 1929, 440,000 people were employed in Australian
manufacturing. The previously dominant clothing and
textiles industry had steadily declined in employment,
while the metals and machinery industry emerged as a
major contributor to both employment and production.
 In particular, the new motor vehicle industry of the
1920s strengthened this sector. With Holden already well
established, Ford soon followed with a large motor body
assembly plant in Geelong, in response to the growing
demand for motor cars.
INDUSTRIALISATION
 While employment had increased rapidly in the early
years of Federation (1901), the Great Depression
(1930’s) had a devastating effect on national
employment.
 The rate of increase then declined to 1.8 times between
the late 1920s and late 1940s, lowering manufacturing's
share of total employment from 22% in 1921 to 18% in
1931.
 However, manufacturing led the recovery from the
Depression, accounting for 25% of total employment by
1940-41, which overtook even the rural sector's share.
INDUSTRIALISATION
During this period there was an increase in:
 large scale agricultural practices
 Irrigation
 Higher standards of living
 Beginnings of recreational pursuits
INDUSTRIALISATION
large scale agricultural practices
1. What did this include?
2. Where were these located?
3. What positive and negative impacts did this have on the
environment?
4. What impact did it have on peoples relationship with the
land/environment?
INDUSTRIALISATION
Irrigation
1. What did this involve?
2. Where was it located?
3. What positive and negative impacts did this have on the
environment?
4. What impact did it have on peoples relationship with the
land/environment?
INDUSTRIALISATION
Higher standards of living
1. What did this involve?
2. Why did this occur?
3. What positive and negative impacts did this have on the
environment?
4. What impact did it have on peoples relationship with the
land/environment?
INDUSTRIALISATION
Beginnings of recreational pursuits
1. What did this involve?
2. Where did it occur?
3. Why did this occur?
4. What positive and negative impacts did this have on the
environment?
5. What impact did it have on peoples relationship with the
land/environment?
Recreational Pursuits
 As the 20th century approached generations had adapted
themselves to the Australian environment and felt more
comfortable.
 More and more people began to appreciate the native bush,
the beautiful rugged coasts and wonderful wildlife array.
 People flocked to the coast and hills in summer to enjoy
their beauty. They concentrated in areas such as Port Phillip
Bay, Mount Macedon, the Dandenongs, Queenscliff and
Brighton.
 The cost of bicycles came within reach of working class pay
packets
 Melbourne Amateur Walking and Touring Club was formed in
1894 bringing together nature explorers.
 A naturalist group (The Field Naturalist Group of Victoria)
was formed in 1880 for the preservation and protection of
the native fauna and flora and other conservation
measures.
Recreational Pursuits
 Australias first national park, Royal National Park near
Sydney, was declared in 1879.
 National prks for recreation were declared in Victoria at
Fern Tree Gully in 1882, and Tower Hill (Warrnambool) in
1892.
 After these first few national parks were declared it gave
people a location of beauty and significance to visit.
 This was the beginning of places being allocated within
natural environments, with many more to follow.

industrialisation