KHILAFAT MOVEMENT
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WHAT IS KHILAFAT
 Concept
:
In political lexicon Khilafat is the name of
Muslim Rule in an Islamic State
 Mix of Political and Religious Authority in one
figure
 It started from 632 the rule of Hazrat Abu
Bakar RA and ends with Khallifa Abdul
Hameed 2nd of Ottoman empire 1924(Almost
1292 Years)

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KHILAFAT
 Various
Phases of Khilafat
 Khilafat-e-Rashida 632 to 662 AD
 Khilafat-e-Banu Ummya/Ummayad 662
to750
 Khilafat-e-Banu Abbass/Abbasids
751
to 1258
 Fatimid in Egypts 909 to 1171
 Ottomans /Usmani Turky 1299 to 1924
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BACK GROUND
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HISTORY
It had originally migrated from Medina to
Damascus and from Damascus to Baghdad. For
sometime it was located in Egypt, then it fell to
the lot of Turkey
 Till Mughal Empire had been in existence, the
Muslims of India did not recognize Khilafat
 At this critical juncture, when the Muslims of the
Sub-continent had no sovereign ruler of their
own, they began to see the necessity of
recognizing the Sultan of Turkey as their Caliph

6
CONT…
The European powers had played a leading role
in reducing the might of Turkey in Europe to
Eastern Thrace, Constantinople and the straits
in the Balkan Wars (1912-13)
 To seek revenge, the Turks decided to side with
the Germans against the Allied Forces. The
Indian Muslims supported this decision

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OBJECTIVES
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OBJECTIVES
1.
To maintain the Turkish Caliphate
2.
To protect the holy places of the Muslims
3.
To maintain the unity of the Ottoman
Empire
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CAUSES
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INTERNATIONAL
 Legacy
of Khilafat
 Spiritual leader of Mughals
 Sultan gave fatwa against Tipu and in
1857 in favor of English
 Turks tilt toward Germany for defense
 1st WW , Shrif-e-Makkah’s rebellion
against Turks trigger by Lawrance of
Arabia
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THOMAS EDWARD
LAWRENCE
1888 to 1935
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CONT….
 Attack
on Syria by
Arab,
 Fall of Damascus,

Belfour Declaration
 Reshmi
Romal
Movement

A letter of Mulana
Obaid Ullah Sindhi
to Molana
Mahmood Ul
Hassan
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NATIONAL
Home Rule League of Ms.Annie Basent and BG
Tilak Sep-3-1916
 Rolat Act 1919
 Sitya Girah of Gandhi (Nonviolence Movement)

Swami Sherdha Nanad’s lead and offer to shoot
bullet at him, Muslim took him to Shahi Masjid Dilhi
 Ch-Khaleeq u Zaman called it “Foolish Enthusiasm”
 19-4-1919 Hindu Muslim Unity Day and single meal,
water by all.
 Quaid on Khilafat Movement


Jalyianwla Bagh Tragedy
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THE COURSE OF STRUGGLE

Khilafat Committee and its demands:
To keep the ottoman empire intact
 No change in territory of Turkish Khalifat
 All Holy Places to be in control of Calipah


Khilafat Delegations to
Governor General India
 London

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MDKC GANDHI AND KHILAFAT
MOVEMENT
 Non
Cooperation Movement
 Surrendering of Titles
 Resignation from Jobs/(Shabas Chander
Bosh)
 Non Payments of Govt dues
 Refusing financial aid by Educational
Institutes
 Failure of Closure of Aligrah and Islamia
College Railway Road
 Swadeshi Movement
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CONT….
Migration Movement and Verdict of Mulana
Azad (Around 925 eminent Muslims signed this
fatwa)
 Rebellion of Moplas (August 1921, agrarian riots
broke out in Nilambur. Moplah peasants revolted
against the Hindu landlord's oppressive policies)
 Civil Disobedience
 Incidence of Chura Chori 1922 Gorakpure UP
(Around a hundred prisoners, confined in a closed
and almost airtight goods van, were transported
by rail)

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END OF MOVEMENT

13 Feb 1922
,Announced by
Gandhi where as
Hakeem Ajmal Khan
was president and
Dr.Mukhtar Ansari
was GS of Congress
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KHILAFAT IN TURKEY
Fall of Khalifa and rise of Mustafa Kamal Ata
Turk
 The Treaty of Lausanne
 Khilafat was seperated from State on 21-Nov1922
 Symbolic Institution of Khalifa was abolish on 3
March,1924
 Verdict that Elected Assembly can perform the
function of Khilafat was endorsed by Allama
Iqbal

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TWO IMPORTANT TREATIES
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THE TREATY OF SÈVRES
(10 August 1920) was the peace treaty between
the Ottoman Empire and Allies at the end of World
War I.
 The Tripartite Agreement confirmed Britain's oil
and commercial concessions and turned the former
German enterprises in the Ottoman Empire over to
a Tripartite corporation.
 April 1920. France, Italy, and Great Britain,
however, had secretly begun the partitioning of the
Ottoman Empire as early as 1915.
 The Treaty of Sèvres was annulled in the course of
the Turkish War of Independence and the parties
signed and ratified the superseding Treaty of
Lausanne in 1923.

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THE TREATY OF LAUSANNE





A peace treaty signed in Lausanne, Switzerland on 24
July 1923,
Treaty of Sèvres was rejected before it had been
ratified, by the Turkish national movement led
by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk,
The Treaty of Lausanne ended the conflict and
defined the borders of the modern Turkish state
except for details of the border with Iraq
In the treaty, Turkey gave up all claims to the
remainder of the Ottoman Empire and in return the
other signatories recognized Turkish sovereignty
within its new borders
The treaty was ratified by Turkey on 23 August 1923,
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TURKEY AFTER THE TREATY OF
LAUSANNE
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REASON OF FAILURE
Surface level unity of Hindu Muslims
 Separate motive for movement of Hindu and
Muslims
 Separate Ideology of Turks and Muslims of
Subcontinent
 War of Turks fought by Muslims of India
 Migration Movement
 Moplas Tragedy

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EFFECTS
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•National
@ subcontinent
•At
Turkey herself
•At
Ummah
NATIONAL

Ulema in Politics

Establishment of Jamit-e-Ulema Hind by Adbul Bari
Farangi Mahal
Demand of Home Rule
 Demand of Full Independence
 Political Consciousness
 Revolution in Thoughts
 Dream of Hindu Muslim Unity Banged
 Student in Politics

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CONT….
British Rajj accepted ,the Treaty of Lausanne
 British Rajj was shaken
 Muslims got the experience of practical politics
 Muslim Came to know how to run a movement
 Use of Religion in Politics
 Strengthening two nation theory
 Muslim joined Congress
 Congress as National party
 Divided Muslim Nationalism



Nationalist Muslims
Muslim Nationalists
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CONT…
Gandhi became Mahatama/Baapu
 Seeds of Separation were sowed
 Hindu Mentality was exposed/using Muslim for
their purposes
 Failure recorded for Muslim Leadership
 Failure of Using Religion in Politics
 Forces were diverted towards separation
 Emergence of Second generation of Muslim
Leadership

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CONT….

Although holding talks with the British and continuing
their activities, the struggle of Khilafat weakened as
Muslims were divided between



Working for the Congress
For cause of Khilafat
Muslim League
The final blow came with the victory of Mustafa
Kemal's forces, who overthrew the Ottoman rule to
establish a pro-Western, secular republic in
independent Turkey.
 He abolished the Chalipath role and sought no help
from Indians

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CONT….
 The
Khilafat leadership fragmented on
different political lines.


Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari created Majlis-e-Ahrar-eIslam
Dr. Ansari,Maulana Azad and Hakim Ajmal
Khan remained strong supporters of Gandhi and the
Congress
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AT TURKEY
Emergence of New
Modern Turkey
 Central Position of
Turkey Ended
 Turkey became
modern and ended
Religion in Politics
but today Turks are
back to Religion

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AT UMMAH
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EXILE OF KHALIFA
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CONT….
A central Institution of Khalifat was abolished
 Emergence of New Arab States
 Division of Arab and Non Arab widen
 KSA took the central role of Religion

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EPILOGUE


The Khilafat struggle evokes controversy and strong
opinions it is regarded as a political agitation based on
a pan-Islamic, fundamentalist platform and being
largely indifferent to the cause of Indian Independence
Proponents of the Khilafat see it as the spark that led
to the non-cooperation movement in India and a major
milestone in improving Hindu-Muslim relations, while
advocates of Pakistan and Muslim separatism see it as
a major step towards establishing the separate Muslim
state
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CONT….
The Ali brothers are regarded as foundingfathers of Pakistan, while Azad, Dr. Ansari and
Hakim Ajmal Khan are widely celebrated as
national heroes in India
 Critics of the Khilafat see its Alliance with the
Congress as a marriage of convenience.

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Khilafat Movement