Challenges to the New Republic (1789-1825)
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I can analyze and explain the major domestic
and foreign crises that faced the United
States after the adoption of the Constitution.
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The “Father of Our Country”
1789-1797
First Cabinet:
Jefferson – Sec. of State;
Hamilton -Sec. of Treasury
Hamilton wanted a large
National Bank (the Bank of
the U.S. in 1792) – it barely
passed Congress
He wanted stable economy,
strong defense, no national
debt and a way to regulate
state and local banks.
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Disagreement over the
Bank led to our first
political parties
The Federalists – Led by
Hamilton; believed in a
loose interpretation of
Constitution (Elastic
Clause)
Democratic-Republicans –
Led by Jefferson; wanted a
strict interpretation of
Constitution and said the
National Bank was
unconstitutional
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The French Revolution (17891799) created problems for the
U.S.
The U.S. said it was neutral.
Were we?
1793 – Britain began seizing
U.S. ships and impressing U.S.
sailors – forcing them into
British Navy
Jay’s Treaty (1794) – British gave
up forts on American side of
Great Lakes, but kept
restrictions on U.S. shipping/
trade.
War with Britain was avoided,
but some cried foul.
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American forces under
General “Mad Anthony”
Wayne defeat alliance of
Native Americans led by
Shawnee War chief, Blue
Jacket, near Toledo, Ohio.
This led to increased western
settlement as Indians gave
up 2/3 of Ohio and S.
Indiana.
Pinckney’s Treaty (1795) with Spain - (got LA from
France in 1763) allowed the
U.S. to use the port of New
Orleans to export goods –
very important for western
settlement
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Problems with France (offended by
Jay’s Treaty) dominated the Adams
(Federalist) Presidency
France copied Britain and began
seizing and fighting with American
ships, called the Quasi-War (17981800)
Alien Act of 1798 – toughened the
citizenship requirements for
immigrants and restricted free
speech. Most new immigrants
usually voted DemocraticRepublican, not Federalist.
Sedition Act of 1798 – made it
illegal to criticize the government
in a time of crisis (i.e. the French
threat).
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Democratic-Republican didn’t believe in a strong
presidency or federal
government; he was for “states’
rights”
Had Congress remove Alien &
Sedition Acts; he was for 1st
Amendment
Reduced taxes, Federal
government spending, and
national debt
Marbury vs. Madison (1803) –
Supreme Court Case that set
precedent for judicial review –
the power to decide the
constitutionality of federal law.
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The Louisiana Purchase
(1803) – from France for
$15 Million was apex of
his presidency
Lewis & Clark Expedition
(1804-06) – Explored
Louisiana Territory &
reached Pacific Ocean
Zebulon Pike Expedition
(1806-07) explored SW
Louisiana Territory –
captured by Spanish in
Colorado; released later
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Britain practiced
impressment – a policy of
seizing U.S. sailors and
forcing them to work in Royal
Navy
Embargo Act of 1807 –
suspended trade with Great
Britain
Thought Britain would need
our food and cotton more
than we needed their
clothing – Embargo failed
because it hurt U.S. economy
Congress ended it in1809 as
Jefferson left office, but
problems with Britain didn’t
end
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The War of 1812 – Madison
felt there was no choice but
war with Britain
Often called “the second war
of Independence”
Britain invaded Washington,
DC & burned Capitol, White
House
The U.S. tried, but failed to
take Canada
U.S. held off more powerful
Britain and their Indian allies
Battle of New Orleans (1815)
– Andrew Jackson becomes a
national hero with great
American victory
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Wanted to prevent Spain or
any other European nation
from re-establishing colonies
in the Americas
Monroe Doctrine (1823) –
said we would use force to
keep Western Hemisphere
free of European domination;
pledged U.S. would stay out
of European affairs
We now saw ourselves as the
supreme power in the
hemisphere
We lacked the military to
enforce it, but it would shape
American foreign policy in the
late 1800s and early 1900s
1. Washington set the tradition of appointing a group of advisors
known as the _________.
a. Directory b. Cabinet c. Judiciary
2. Britain and other European nations declared war on this country
when it overthrew the monarchy in 1789?
a. Spain b. Prussia c. France
3. Some feel the Louisiana Purchase was his greatest achievement?
a. Jefferson b. Madison c. Monroe
4. This failed law of 1807 was passed to keep American ships in
port to avoid conflicts with the British Navy?
a. Impressment Act b. Embargo Act c. Boycott Act
5. The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 was passed to
a. prevent Mexico from breaking away from Spain.
b. prevent European nations from creating new colonies in the Americas.
c. prevent Great Britain from trading with the United States.

The New Republic and Antebellum Period