WHY HAVE ETHNICITIES BEEN
TRANSFORMED INTO
NATIONALITIES?
Rise of Nationalities
NATIONALITY V. ETHNICITY

In the U.S. the terminology of nationality v.
ethnicity is kept at a distance.
Nationality describes people who are citizens of the
U.S. either by birth or immigration.
 Ethnicity describes an ancestral heritage and set of
traditions.
 Race distinguishes between people of color.

CONFLICT
Outside North America the line between
ethnicity and nationality are blurred.
 This causes the potential for conflict and
unhealthy nationalism.
 Nation-States:


A state whose political boundaries coincide with the
boundaries of a nationality.
SELF-DETERMINATION
One of the reasons ethnic groups have been
transformed in to nationalities is the desire for
self rule.
 This concept of ethnic groups having the right to
govern themselves is self-determination.

DENMARK
Fairly good example of nation-state.
 Area occupied by the Danes closely resembles the
political boundaries of Denmark.
 Nearly all the world’s Danish speakers live in
Denmark.
 But, not a perfect example.


Greenland: Danish territory but only 12% of the
58,000 residents are considered Danish. (Inuit)
NATION-STATES IN EUROPE

Most of Europe became nation-states in the 19th
century through the 20th century.
MULTINATIONAL STATES

Former Soviet Union/Russia are the largest
multi-national states.
Caucasus region home to many different nationalities
that were encouraged to be part of one Soviet Union.
 However, from a political geo standpoint: each of
those nationalities are ultimately looking for their
own sovereign nation-states

THE CAUCASUS
Azerbaijan
 Armenia
 Georgia
 All former soviet block countries became
independent again in 1991.
 All three have dealt with unrest and conflict
between each other and internally.

THE CAUCASUS
COMPETITION
In some cases
ethnicities fight with
each other to
dominate the national
identity.
 This is especially true
in sub-Saharan Africa.


Why have ethnicities been transformed into