WHY HAVE ETHNICITIES BEEN TRANSFORMED INTO NATIONALITIES? Rise of Nationalities NATIONALITY V. ETHNICITY In the U.S. the terminology of nationality v. ethnicity is kept at a distance. Nationality describes people who are citizens of the U.S. either by birth or immigration. Ethnicity describes an ancestral heritage and set of traditions. Race distinguishes between people of color. CONFLICT Outside North America the line between ethnicity and nationality are blurred. This causes the potential for conflict and unhealthy nationalism. Nation-States: A state whose political boundaries coincide with the boundaries of a nationality. SELF-DETERMINATION One of the reasons ethnic groups have been transformed in to nationalities is the desire for self rule. This concept of ethnic groups having the right to govern themselves is self-determination. DENMARK Fairly good example of nation-state. Area occupied by the Danes closely resembles the political boundaries of Denmark. Nearly all the world’s Danish speakers live in Denmark. But, not a perfect example. Greenland: Danish territory but only 12% of the 58,000 residents are considered Danish. (Inuit) NATION-STATES IN EUROPE Most of Europe became nation-states in the 19th century through the 20th century. MULTINATIONAL STATES Former Soviet Union/Russia are the largest multi-national states. Caucasus region home to many different nationalities that were encouraged to be part of one Soviet Union. However, from a political geo standpoint: each of those nationalities are ultimately looking for their own sovereign nation-states THE CAUCASUS Azerbaijan Armenia Georgia All former soviet block countries became independent again in 1991. All three have dealt with unrest and conflict between each other and internally. THE CAUCASUS COMPETITION In some cases ethnicities fight with each other to dominate the national identity. This is especially true in sub-Saharan Africa.